With a notable presence of Roman and Visigoth structures especially in Southern Spain, the Muslims decided to take advantage of structures that were already built and in that was the Cordobes, or Cordovan style was created. This style, names after the city of Cordoba became the capital of the caliphate.
In the year AD, Muslims from North Africa historically known as the Moors, invaded the Iberian Peninsula taking control over more than sixty percent of the whole territory. This would not only shape the political map of Spain during the Middle Ages, but it would also shape the cultural and artistic profile of this section of Europe. Before and after the Moorish invaders had come to the Peninsula, Spain was an area where one could find a strong diversity of ethnical groups sharing a common ground.
With the Islamic Invasion, a new element was added to the already ethnically diverse territory, only this time, the relationship among the different groups would be extremely delicate as a consequence of all the existing religious, cultural and ethnical differences. The Great Mosque of Cordoba was built in one year. Made from a variety of materials including stucco, marble and wood. Between the years of and it was built over a Visigoth church.
Due in large part to J In eight pages Islamic architecture and art are examined in a comparative analysis of these mosaics. Seven sources are cited in t In ten pages this paper examines the Islamic cultural importance of mosques with 3 famous examples provided.
Nine sources are cit This research paper offers an over-all summary of the debate over whether or not New York City should allow construction of an Isl The majority of the country is geographically in Asia, where, to the east Raja-ki-Mandi is also a popular stopover point in the city.
Some of the other major trains pass through Tundla, well connected to the city by road. Agra boasts of three National Highways including N. The government and private bus services are available to and from Agra to all the nearby major destinations. One can hire ordinary buses or the deluxe coaches, according to their requirements.
Tourism also conducts special guided tours for the tourists, who come here just for a day, including Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Sikandra and Fatehpur Sikri in their itineraries.
Taj Mahal was constructed between A. D and A. The construction is said to have been done by a workforce of 22, that contained among others laborers, Naqqashi laborers, painters, stonecutters, garden-layers, gardeners, embroidery artists and masons. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned its construction. It was constructed as a mausoleum for Arjumand Begum, who was re-christened Mumtaz after her marriage to Shah Jahan.
It is said that Shah Jahan was very much pained by the death of his favorite wife. He constructed this mausoleum so that its pleasant site would give him solace. The Taj Maha is the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that is a subtle blend of elements from Persian, Indian and Turkish architecture. The Taj Mahal has achieved special note because of the romance of its inspiration.
It is wrongly perceived that only the white domed marble mausoleum is Taj. The Taj Mahal is actually an integrated complex of structures that contains gardens, gateways, inns and a mosque.
Quick Facts about Taj Mahal is Legend has it that Shah Jahan had planned to construct another Taj Mahal in black marble on the other side of the river, but the war with his sons interrupted his plans. Supposedly, there are two staircases on the northern side of the red sandstone plinth that lead into a basement containing 17 chambers, with a third crypt in the center.
Some important studies feel that the Taj Mahal is sinking. These were mainly used for inlaying work. Red stone was brought from the neighboring towns like Fatehpur Sikri, Karauli-Hindaun, Tantpur and Paharpur whereas white marble was brought from Makrana mines Rajasthan. Semi precious and rare stones were occasionally brought from as distant places such as Upper Tibet, Kumaon, Jaisalmer, Cambay and Ceylon.
Other materials which were used for the construction of Taj Mahal included different kind of bricks, Gaj-i-Shirin sweet limestone , Khaprel or tiles, Qulba or Spouts to lead off water, San, Gum, Sirish-i-Kahli or reed glue, Gul-i-Surkh or red clay, Simgil silver clay and glass.
The center and skeleton of the main building is made up of extra strong brick masonary in which massive white marble slabs, have been used on the headers and stretchers system to give it a white marble outlook. Country ingredients such as molasses; batashe sugar-bubbles , belgiri-water, urd-pulse, curd, jute and Kankar pieces of fossilized soil were mixed with lime mortar to make it an ideal cementing material. The Mughals believed that the precious and semiprecious stones have different effects on the fortunes of different persons and places; they may be auspicious or inauspicious.
This has exactly been calculated and strictly adhered to in the adornment of the Taj Mahal. It is primarily because of these reasons that we see predominance of one or the other stone on a particular feature of its architecture. A number of marks are engraved on red stone slabs, on the pathways, stairs, plinths and pavements of the Taj Mahal.
There has been a long ongoing controversy about the name of the chief architect of the Taj Mahal, the pinnacle of architectural perfection. Veroneo and Ustad Isa Afandi are the chief contestants proposed for the credit.
Veroneo is known to have lived in Agra for many years and died at Lahore in However, there are many loopholes in this theory. Apart from the fact that his name has not been mentioned in any of the contemporary Persian sources carrying names of various artists and craftsmen who worked for Taj, even the travelogues written by the Europeans who passed through Agra at the time mention Veroneo only as a skilled jeweler and not in anyway connected with Taj.
Besides, no mention of Veroneo having ever learned architecture has been found and it is well understood that only a person well versed in architecture could have proposed and planned Taj. The second contestant Ustad Isa Afandi has only been mentioned as the draftsman and not as engineer or architect of Taj in the various Persian scriptures of those times including the accounts of Lahauri. Other names that keep popping up from time to time include the Turkish Isa Muhammad Effendi and Persian architect, Ustad Ahmad, who had designed the Red fort.
Yet, the most historians agree that Shah Jahan himself was the main proponent of Taj. To create this architectural wonder, he passionately coordinated all the ideas, suggestions and projects presented to him by various skilled artists, irrespective of their origin, whether they were French, Turkish, Indian or Italian.
Only vigilant and correct amalgamation of myriad designs and opinions proposed by many masterminds put together could create such an architectural balance and splendor. The interior chamber of Taj Mahal steps far beyond traditional decorative elements. Here the inlay work is not pietra dura, but lapidary of precious and semiprecious gemstones. The inner chamber is an octagon with the design allowing for entry from each face, though, only the south garden-facing door is used.
Eight pishtaq arches define the space at ground level. As with the exterior, each lower pishtaq is crowned by a second pishtaq about midway up the wall. In addition to the light from the balcony screens, light enters through roof openings covered by chattris at the corners.
Each chamber wall has been highly decorated with dado bas relief, intricate lapidary inlay and refined calligraphy panels, reflecting in miniature detail of the design elements seen throughout the exterior of the complex.
The octagonal marble screen or jali which borders the cenotaphs is made from eight marble panels. Each panel has been carved through with intricate piercework. The remaining surfaces have been inlaid with semiprecious stones in extremely delicate detail, forming twining vines, fruits and flowers. Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decoration of graves and hence Mumtaz and Shah Jahan are laid in a relatively plain crypt beneath the inner chamber with faces turned right and towards Mecca.
Both the base and casket are elaborately inlaid with precious and semipreciousems. Calligraphic inscriptions on the casket identify and praise Mumtaz. On the lid of the casket is a raised rectangular lozenge meant to suggest a writing tablet. It is the only visible asymmetric element in the entire complex.
Also, in a mosque there is calligraphy writing that decorates the walls of the mosque with passages from the Quran and the Shahadah. It is a reminder to the Muslims of the importance of Allah's words.
- Mosque as A Place of Worship Introduction Mosque described as a place which servers both as a house of worship and as a symbol of Islam. In Islam a masjid is a house of prayer. Mosque is symbolically very important to Muslims; it is a humble way for Muslims to rebuild a .
Essay about Mosque Mosque A mosque is a place where Muslims meet to worship God (Allah). The word 'mosque' is linked to an Arabic word meaning 'prostrate oneself' and it is a place where Muslims bow before God (prostrate means bow down). Mosques are generally rectangular. Essays from BookRags provide great ideas for Mosque essays and paper topics like Essay. View this student essay about Mosque.
The Mosque is one of the most popular assignments among students' documents. If you are stuck with writing or missing ideas, scroll down and find inspiration in the best samples. Mosque is quite a rare and popular topic for writing an essay, but it certainly is in our database. In this essay, I will be discussing the role and function as well as the main features of the mosque in the Muslim community. The word mosque is defined as a ‘Muslim place of worship’. It is very important in Islam because it is the place where Muslims humbly face their lord, prostrate to him.