Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms.
Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance.
A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…… [Read More]. Girls is an ethnographic documentary detailing a female rite of passage in a small island community in the Niger River delta in Africa. The film's purpose is primarily to illustrate the conflicts that emerge as cultures find themselves perched between two worlds: However, Monday's Girls is also about gender issues, and how gender issues are at the forefront of every culture's ability to remain relevant.
The film touches upon many related issues such as cultural relativism, and the filmmakers show that it is difficult to make a clear judgment for or against preserving traditions like those of the Waikiriki. Rather than suggest a clear moral stance about the female rite of passage, the filmmakers illustrate the complexities and ambiguities involved in studying culture. Even within its own people, there are sometimes…… [Read More].
Human Resources -- Sexual Discrimination. Individuals who are sexually harassed at work experience stress. It is now more common knowledge that stress manifests itself physically in our bodies. Thus, persons who are sexually harassed may have aches, pains, headaches, muscle tensions, digestive problems, and actually, a very large array of physical symptoms that stem from additional stress experienced at work.
The relationships of those who are sexually harassed suffer as well. People who are sexually harassed suffer from diminished self-esteem and perhaps also depression. These people withdraw and avoid social gatherings, withdraw from their friends and families, and participate less in group activities, including work meetings.
The lack of physical and social contact can cause further psychological and emotional damage to a person who is already suffering. Adolescent's Perception on Himself Herself or. Self-esteem must be combined with other components of emotional distress, such as the factors which affect perceptions of the self and of other peers. Factors should include competence, confidence, and acceptance, among others. Behaviors that are considered to be negative by society may not be the factors that most strongly affect self-perceptions and self-esteem, however.
As noted by Mosley , factors which are interpreted and internalized as negative will have a significant impact on self-esteem, even if they are not socially irresponsible. Mosley's example is that adolescent receipt of welfare is associated with lower levels of perceived self-worth.
Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51 1 , Status and the Evaluation of Workplace Deviance. Journal of the Association for Psychological Sciences, 21 1 , The hegemonic narrative and the social construction of deviance: Trends in Organized Crime, 13 4 , Developmental Pathways into Social and Sexual Deviance.
Jouranl of Family Violence, 25 2 , Social Deviance View Full Essay. Social labelling is not flawless, indeed like all the other social theories explaining crime and delinquency, it fails to capture some aspects of crime like the reason behind some crimes that are innate or are not learned from another person.
For instance, this theory cannot help explain why a person could be a serial killer yet no one taught him to kill nor has he seen someone kill another.
Another such crimes that seem innate is rape, the theory cannot explain why rapists may get into the trend even without being taught how to rape or even having before seen someone rape. The white collar crimes are often considered to be lesser crimes that the street-level crimes. This is because the white collar crimes are considered victimless crimes that do not cause harm to individuals or damage to property.
This is the labeling theory look at crime hence many consider the white collar thieves as some smart people. This has seen the law enforcement to invest less in curbing the white collar crimes, there are differences in laws governing such crimes and there are lesser technologies put in place to curb such crimes as compared to the street-level crimes.
The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life Interpol, There are several social habits that were there before considered deviant but today have been accepted as part of the social network and people practice without being reprimanded as was before.
Some of these behaviors are sex before marriage was there before considered deviant but today a person can have sexual relation with several partners before they settle down with one woman for marriage. Living with a woman who was not your wife was considered deviant and unacceptable, but today there are such living arrangements and in many countries there are laws to protect such.
In the earlier decades, it was considered deviant for a woman or a young lady to wear pants or trousers, it was frowned at as a sign of. A Report on the Banality of Evil. Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. A Social History of Spin. Introduction to Social Psychology. New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect.
References List Burton, J. International Relations, a General Theory. Deviance, Terrorism and War: Works Cited O'Connor, T. Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology. The Case of the Soviet Purge, " suggests that the repressive Soviet regime of Stalin similarly derived its sense of popular legitimacy from manufacturing or creating not only a communist sense of class or dialectical warfare, but of medical and racial and social deviance of good citizens of the republic vs.
As the class warfare, according to official Soviet rhetoric had ended, between the bourgeois and proletarian, Stalin was in something of an ideological quandary as to how to define what was wrong with Soviet society, even after communist 'reforms' had been instated. Personal deviance from what was considered the norm in a sociological fashion was one way this was created. By perpetually creating or manufacturing distractions, and then purging such deviant groups, Stalin kept his hold on power through paranoia.
The public's ire and distrust wielded against other social groups, such as Jewish individuals or members of ethnic minorities, rather than politicians. Thus Stalin was able to keep secure in power, even in a nation that was weathering terrible economic privations that would normally spur a population to revolt. The ideological manufacturing of blaming a group, whether international capitalists outside, or Jewish doctors infiltrating the inner sanctum of Stalin's power base ensured that the dictator was able to create a climate of fear on a personal, micro level within the Kremlin and on a macro level for the populace at large, as they had to be constantly on guard for spies and other deviants in their midst.
O'Connor ultimately concludes that polarization rather than harmonization is key in a dictatorship, and also in some manifestations of democracy during economic and social difficulties. Social Cognition View Full Essay. Child-care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.
Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11 1 , Social-Cognitive Development during Adolescence.
Social construction theories on'serial killers View Full Essay. Disparities in the Criminal Justice System. Food Allergy Among U.
Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations. Poverty Among Inner-City Children. Violence and Childhood in the Inner City. Social Disorganization Theories of Crime. Accessed September 15, from http: Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's b, line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 1 , Bystander intervention in emergencies: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8 4 , Bibliography American Sociological Review Papers in Honor of Robert K.
Social Power, Context, and Interaction 7th ed. Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. Works Cited Ferro, Jeffrey. A Serious American Problem. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society. References Digital Dream Door. Rock n Roll Timeline. Retrieved July 27, from http: Retrieved July 27, from Needham Heights: The Basics of Society. Retrieved November 21, http: Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention.
Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15 1 , Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10 1 , Longing for a Father. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10 3 , Childhood antecedents and psychiatric disorder. Survey of Criminal Justice. Race, Crime and Justice. Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children. Burkett, Elinor, and Frank Bruni. A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse, and the Catholic Church.
Ten Myths About Priestly Pedophilia. Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church: A Historical and Contemporary Review. References Cohen, P , Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, , Retrieved http: A Short Note, n.
Retrieved January 18, , from http: References Bennett, Rebecca J. And Robinson, Sandra L. Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, Work environments that negate counterproductive behaviors and foster organizational citizenship: Research-based recommendations for managers.
Psychologist-Manager Journal, 10, Koster, Ferry and Sanders, Karin. Organizational citizens or reciprocal relationships?
Personnel Review, 35, Can counterproductive work behaviors be productive? CWB as emotion-focused coping. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, Works Cited Dreer, Laura E. Retrieved 18 Oct at http: Retrieved February 11, , from http: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. University of North Carolina Press. Development of Adolescent Problem Behavior.
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Harper Collins Macionis, J. Images of Deviance and Social Control. References Kessel, DH n. A Down-to-Earth Approach Boston: Sociology 9th Ed New Jersey: References Harrison, Larry R Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents.
Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, Pawlak, Rebecca Effects of social bonds and childhood experiences on alcohol abuse and smoking. The Journal of Social Psychology. Ideal Society View Full Essay. Given this, and without falling down the slippery slope of moral relativism, we must therefore recognize that one group's behaviors, and the meanings attached to those behaviors will always provoke a negative reaction among some other group.
Nevertheless, if we do not fall prey to moral relativism and therefore, do recognize that some behavior - at least according to our belief system - is wrong, we must treat cultural "deviants" as humanely and justly as possible. In an ideal society, we should also act pro-actively and engage in societal reform to reduce the extent of social deviance in the first instance. Jon Will, "Utopian Philosophy.
References Brown, Stephen E. Explaining Crime and its Context. Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Substance Use among Women. Decline of the Institution of View Full Essay. The Economic Consequences of the Decline of Marriage. Working Paper , Department of Economics: Johannes Kepler University of Linz, The Decline of Marriage: Retrieved on December 11, from Http: Works Cited Bradley, Kristen.
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Introduction to sociological theory: Women's Imprisonment in the United States. Research News from Top Universities. How transgender policy sets off 'gender panic' - Futurity. Retrieved December 4, , from http: Excerptom Invitation to Sociology. Merton Dies at Labelling theory is also interested in the effect of labelling individuals. As well, labelling theorists note that most people commit crimes at some time in their lives but not everyone becomes defined as deviant or criminal.
How does this process of defining a person as deviant work? Look at a situation where a policeman holds stereotypes about typical criminals. They use these stereotypes to interpret the behaviour of suspected deviants. In other words, the closer a person comes to the stereotype held by the police, the more likely they are to be arrested, charged, and convicted of the crime. Furthermore, once someone has been successfully labelled or stigmatized as criminal or deviant, the label attached may become the dominant label.
The master status is the attached label that is normally seen as a characteristic of more importance than all other aspects of the person. For example, he or she becomes a hooligan or thief rather than a father, mother or friend.
Each label carries with it something. For some people once a deviant label has been applied, in terms of a deviant self-concept, they accept themselves as a deviant, however, this can only make room for further deviant acts to be made. This happens when people start acting in the way they have been labelled. For example, a man caught in an isolated act of stealing may be convicted, sent to prison, labelled as a criminal, and later as an ex-con.
Friends will most likely not want to associate with him and employers will not employ him due to his criminal record. In other words, the man is stigmatized as a general deviant and as a consequence, he is excluded from all conventional associations and contacts. As well, this type of situation makes it very difficult for the man to maintain the identity of a non-deviant person.
Consequently, subjectivism portrays the action as subjective in nature. The aim of subjectivism is to have an understanding of the personal view of the deviant in order to have the knowledge of how they see the world Goode, When the deviant picks his or her nose and wipes the mucus on the walls, it is necessary to have an understanding of how they view the action through getting their personal view on the act.
This might give some information on their perception of the same. When relating the behavior in focus to labeling theory, it is necessary to consider the fact that this behavior is applicable as a deviant behavior only when the society labels it as deviant. The members of the society responsible for interpreting specified behaviors in the society as deviant attach the label to the corresponding individuals to determine the feature between deviance and non-deviance.
In this case, the labeled person is the one who engages in the deviant behavior. Social research has relative indications that the individuals with negative labels on regular occasions have exposure to lower self-image and may reject themselves because of the label.
Giving a label to such behavior is one way of ensuring the continuity of the societal culture, which is vital for curbing any form of divergence to the societal norms. The aspect of sociology focuses on the perspective of societal cause and effects of deviance.
Labeling theory is applicable in delineating the causes of such behavior with a process by which both formal and informal labels affect behavior over time through self-concept Browning, The theory suggests that the imposition of deviant behavior emanates from social group constructs, which define the norms and values that guide behavior. From the assumptions of the theory, it is possible to label people who violate the norms as outsiders.
The labeling of an individual as a deviant is possible only if there is a reaction from the society that negates the behavior Browning, …. This sociology research paper sample is provided to give you an idea of how this academic paper should be written and formatted. We wish to remind you that you are not allowed to use this text or parts of it without proper acknowledgments, since it will be considered as plagiarism. If you are having difficulties with your sociology research paper, we know how to help!
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Free social deviance papers, essays, and research papers.
Deviance is a term used by society to define behaviors that differ from the everyday social norm, this means that majority of people in a society. In the essay I will discuss the notion of deviance and will demonstrate that people do not become deviants on the strength of their behaviour alone, but by the sanctions of a society whose norms that the offender has deemed to have violated.
In this essay we are concerned with social deviance, not physiological deviations from the expected norm. In general, any behavior that does not conform to social norms is deviance; that is behavior that violates significant social norms and is disapproved of by a large number of people as a result. Sociology Research Paper on Deviance Posted on October 29, by EssayShark The approval of a certain behaviors depends on the societal culture, which .