In examining the relationship between incarceration and crime in the s the picture is complicated by the seven year period just prior to this, Thus we see a continuous rise in incarceration for fourteen years, during which crime rose for seven years, then declined for seven years. This does not suggest that incarceration had no impact on crime, but any such connection is clearly influenced by other factors.
A comparison with other nations is instructive in this regard. First, it is important to understand just what white collar crime ac This 8 page paper uses analysis to determine whether urban crime increases in racially segregated residential areas.
In fact, the juvenile system ha We are kept up-to-date on the violence in Iraq and that u New to eCheat Create an Account! Violent Crime Research Paper Violent Crime Research Paper Nothing does more to tear our families apart than violent crime, guns, gangs, drugs, and the fear that walks alongside those terrors.
Professionally written essays on this topic: Violent Crime and White Collar Crime to the lowest-ranking person in an business or organization. Are Criminals Made Or Born? America and Violent Crime violence: Crime - Two Viewpoints theories: Victimization Recovery and the Effects of Social Support impacts of criminal victimization, including interpersonal violence, sexual abuse and domestic violence, all of which comprise a s No criminal is convicted of a crime they never did.
According to the criminal justice systems, crime scene is investigated and the person pointed to by the evidence is whoever is accused of committing the crime even if the social realm may feel otherwise.
For this reason, the criminal justice system holds crime scene investigation very deal to the pursuance of the criminal and the manner in which the crime was committed. The evidence from the scene of the crime is therefore very important since it serves as the sole way to bring the perpetrator of a given crime to book.
This imposes the need to ensure that the crime scene investigation process is done in a secure and very safe way to avoid contaminating or ruining the evidence was found on the scene. It is the role of the criminal justice system to use the evidence and bring the criminal into persecution.
The criminal justice system in the US is centralized due to the resulting terrorist attacks that took place on September 11 The attacks revealed to the nation and the world that despite putting measures to protect citizens from local crimes, international crimes were also part of what the nation as a whole should be protected from. Crime scene investigation can therefore be due to local or international crime cases. Crime scene investigation or the CSI involves the process through which criminal investigators find and collect evidence at the scene of the crime.
At the scene of investigation, very many items or objects are used to provide tips on what exactly transpired and who the criminals involved were. In many cases, the criminal investigators leave nothing uncovered so that the wrong doer will be brought to book and the victims will finally have justice at hand.
Some of the tips used at the crime scene to identify the criminal include blood spots, footprints n fingerprints, interrogating the victim and witnesses amongst other important things. The action of crime scene investigation involves the use of qualified crime scene investigators who just do the work of collection of evidence at the crime scene as well as follow the results in the lab before coming up with a final conclusion.
Issues related to correctional institutions, incarceration and release. After evidence has been presented the court decide on the fate of the victim depending on how concrete such evidence had been made during the presentation USToday, In case one turns out as guilty, they have to face the law by facing charges and are locked up in a prison or correctional institution where they are assisted how to change their behavior as well as how to integrate with the society upon release by becoming law abiding citizens.
Corrections is a systematic and well organized effort aimed at punishing law offenders, protecting the public from such offenders, transforming the behavior of the offenders as well as compensating the victims to the offenders. In order to offer correction to its law offenders, the US uses correctional facilities as the center points through which corrections are offered to any law offenders USToday, Relationship between criminal and social justice theories and the US constitution.
Theories of law and criminal justice are a category of laws that attempt to explain the creation of laws as well as the operation of the criminal justice. With these theories in the criminal justice, it becomes easier to understand and explain how the criminal justice works and the actors involved in the criminal justice system.
For the longest time, the US viewed crime in terms of sentencing only. However, with politics in place, punishment to criminals has taken up on a new perspective that considered rehabilitation more. Today, the issue of criminals being in jail is not just a matter of punishing them but also assisting them to be able to become useful members of the society upon their release from their incarceration term.
In the US constitution, it is as important to have a criminal in jail the same way it is important to have such a criminal change their behavior and become fully effective in the society upon release cliffnotes, Punishing a criminal by just having them serve a jail sentence is nothing more than given the criminal time to plan for revenge or even worse crimes upon their release Alkers and Sellers, It is for the reason of reducing repeat crimes and criminals that the theory of rehabilitation has been made a part of the criminal law in the US.
Although correctional rehabilitation has been proved useful in the case of first time offenders, it has not been as effective on the repeat and violent offenders however. The above three theories, that is rehabilitation, incapacitation and deterrence are more concerned with the future by impacting on the present Alkers and Sellers, Centralization of the criminal justice.
In many world nations today, the issue of whether or not to centralize the criminal justice system is so contentious hence raising very heated debates. In the US however, the main aim is to have the criminal justice agencies like the police as centralized as possible. In this way, it becomes possible to achieve coordination of counter terrorism measures which is one of the US priorities especially after the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Although decentralization will be useful in dealing with the local crimes, international crimes in the form of terrorism groups can be effectively dealt with using the centralized criminal justice systems.
In addition, it is the DHS that manage the Emergency Preparedness and Response directorate whose duties are identified in the provisions available in the homeland security act. By coming up with a centralized criminal justice system, the US had the intention of controlling the international aspects of criminal and social justice. This way, all othernations in need of dealing with terrorism would seek for the US assistance or collaboration. From the paper, the crime has been discussed in details of crime scene investigation, techniques and security; the collection, preservation and presentation of the evidence; issues of related to correctional institutions, incarceration and release; criminal and social justice theories in relation to the US constitution; and the centralization of criminal justice agencies.
To begin with, any form of crime has a specific venue of occurrence and specific victims who are involved. In this case, crime scene investigation becomes handy especially in the identification of the criminal as well as the victims to the crime incidence.
After identification of the evidence, it is presented in a court of law where the criminal is convicted for a jail term or just to send off as innocent. In the US today, criminals sentenced to serve jail terms face several issues in the correctional institutions such as medical care, rehabilitation, and others. The US constitution plays a major role in both the criminal and social justice systems as it is responsible for the formation of theories for use in both systems.
Wednesday, 01 August You can place an order similar to this with us. Rate this item 1 2 3 4 5 1 vote. Discussion Crime scene investigation Crime scene investigation or the CSI involves the process through which criminal investigators find and collect evidence at the scene of the crime.
The process of crime scene investigation acts as or is viewed as the meeting point of three fields namely law, logic and science. The main thing involved is the processing of the crime scene which in most cases is a process so long and tedious.
This is as a result of the fact that this process involves lengthy documentation of the transpirations at the crime scene as well as collection of any physical evidence which in its being would be useful in the provision of necessary illumination or revelation of what exactly transpired at that given point and who exactly was involved. For this reason, crime scene investigation has been transformed to refer to forensic science. This is because it is seen to encompass a wide range of sciences which are useful in the solving of questions that are concerned with the legal system.
Since evidence is the most important part in identification of the criminal, then crime scene investigators are required to have excellent skills in the collection of evidence as well as processing it, photography and excellent skills in writing. In their role of evidence collection, crime scene investigators are required to perform crime scene evidence collection very carefully and systematically Layton, To begin with, the victim reports the crime to the police.
For instance, they must collect any dried blood from the pane of a window without brushing it off with their arms or any other part of their body. This is necessary since at such a point, it is possible to have fingerprints which would be rubbed off in case of carelessness and this would mean rubbing it off hence doing away with very important piece of evidence Layton, Again, the tools like sledge hammer may be useful for breaking through walls beyond which terrible smells seem to be emerging.
Immediately the investigators arrive at the scene and makes sure that it is secure the process of evidence collection begins with the preliminary step of initial walk-through or the crime scene survey.
The main intention of the initial walk through is in order to obtain the overall ambiance of the crime scene by identifying whether someone secretly moved in something none related to the crime between the occurrence of the crime and the arrival of the CSI.
Again, it is in the performance of initial walk-through or survey thatThe Crime scene investigation comes up with the first time theories founded on what is obtained from visual examination of the scene. One thing worth noting is that the initial walk through stages does not involve any touching within the crime scene.
Instead, only notes of potential evidence are made. Crime scene investigation photography comes to play at this initial walk-through process since thorough documentation is done at through taking of photographs, and sketch drawing done. At this point, the initial walkthrough changes into second walk-through Home security, Other elements that can be included in the second walk through include the taking of video.
Basically, the second walk-through goes a step ahead to document any identified evidence within the crime scene and still touches nothing just documenting every useful detail Home security, After the second walk-through, what follows is a determination of the sequence of evidence collection to be used for the entire crime investigation process. The sequence may be based on information like the location of the scene which could be interior, exterior or within a vehicle; the evidence condition which means could be fragile or stable; the condition of the weather based on how such would affect the evidence at the crime scene; the conditions for scene management depending on whether they will contaminate or alter the evidence and finally the any other additional techniques that needs to be incorporates by other specialized persons.
Apart from identifying the information to determine the evidence collection sequence, the crime scene investigators must ensure that they secure the evidence through the use of the right tools and equipment to conduct the crimes scene evidence collection Home security, The use of appropriate tools and equipment during crime scene investigation becomes handy when collecting all the potential evidence systematically and in the most appropriate way possible.
One condition concerning the evidence collection tools is that they should be sterile. Such tools include latex gloves, forceps, forceps, tweezers, plastic and paper bags, hand tools, thermometers, cardboard boxes, swabs and scalpels amongst others. At the scene of the crime, there could be different kinds of evidence.
The main categories include the dried material and the liquid material. Each of these materials requires different collection methods or techniques. This brings us to the two main evidence collection techniques at the crime scene which are the dried material collection technique and the liquid material collection technique.
Although this are the best practices in evidence collection at the crime scene, biological evidence whether liquid or dry at the crime scene should be recovered using the swabbing technique. In the dried material collection technique, investigator first wears gloves and then uses distilled water t moisten the swab. With moistening, this simply means dampening but not making overly wet.
Next, follows the rubbing of the stained area using a single moistened swab in the case of a small stain or use of multiple swabs in the case of large stain. On the other hand, very little or small stains call for greater concentration as this would mean using the tip of the swab to collect as much of the evidence available as possible.
With the evidence on the swabs, next is the drying of the moist evidence on the swab. However, the drying involves no rubbing or scrubbing but involves the use of air hence air-drying the swabs. The swabs already containing evidence are then placed into different packages which could be inside paper envelopes. In order to control the evidence, then the same techniques is used to collect sample evidence from an area that has not been stained. Although the physical evidence is just but a part of the crime investigation the final goal is to finally arrive at a point where the crime perpetrators can be convicted Layton, However, the evidence collection must be done so carefully so that is preserved in its current form in as much a way as is possible.
Other considerations for ensuring evidence and crime scene investigation as safe as possible is the guarantee that even when used by the lab, the evidence will be in its best state to enable the laboratory people to reconstruct the crime in the best way possible or even come up with the identification of the criminals.
The issues required legally so as to come up with evidence that can be acceptable before a court of law is also important during crime scene evidence collection security.
Caution must be taken to ensure that no folding of such wet evidence is done and instead, it should be put inside paper wrapping to prevent contamination in the course of the transfer. This will also prevent blood stain patterns as well as cross-contamination.
The item with the item is then evidence is then air dried ready for use as dried evidence before being packages in a container for transportation to the lab. In the case where the present evidence is in liquid form on a surface or other fixed location, then a swab can be used to absorb the liquid in the most possible way and then air-dried before packaging each of the swabs inside an appropriate container.
Like the case of dried material, then a sample is collected from an area that is not stained to be used as control. Other forms of evidence that can be collected from the crime scene include trace evidence, hair and fibers, fingerprints, footwear or tool mark impressions, firearms and documents.
The most common form of trace evidence includes gunshot residue, chemicals, illicit drugs, residue from paint and glass among others. Like in the case of biological materials, the investigator must first ensure the security of the evidence by wearing disposable hand latex gloves.
Booties face masks and biohazard waste bags are also necessary Layton, The tools involved in the collection of trace evidence include tweezers, knives, plastic containers with lids and a filtered vacuum device.
After trace evidence has been identified and collected, it is then the responsibility of the lab to reveal the composition of the trace and determine what had transpired at the scene of the crime and whoever was involved. The evidence collected at the scene of the crime is taken to the appropriate lab depending on its nature like a chemistry lab hosts all the unknown crime scene substance, hair or other biological substances to the DNA lab while others are taken to the trace laboratory.
At the crime scene, it is possible to identify visible, molded or latent fingerprints. These are very useful tools for use in eliminating a suspect or in revealing the real identity of the victim or the suspect.
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