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What Is a Descriptive-Normative Survey?

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Surveys also provide a means of standardizing the data collection because the same data is collected from every respondent. There are two broad categories of surveys: A questionnaire is typically a paper-and-pencil or computerized instrument that ask respondents a standard list of questions that are typically short, closed-ended questions. Questionnaires may be given to individuals or may be administered to groups.

Interviews are a more personal form surveying that allows the researcher to work directly with each respondent and ask follow up questions if necessary. Conducting interviews is obviously more time-consuming but may be very helpful when trying to gather information regarding opinions or impressions. Once the overall design of the survey has been determined, there are a variety of other factors to consider that impact the overall design of the project. Following is a list of the most important issues that will need to be addressed and links for additional information on each.

Once the survey has been designed and delivered, the data that is collected will need to be analyzed. Survey data is slightly different than data from other descriptive methods in that it may lend itself better to quantitative analysis. For example, the researcher can examine the number of respondents that choose response A over B or C. This is especially true with data collected from written or computer based surveys and questionnaires. Surveys that are done as interviews may provide more open-ended data in a narrative form that must be analyzed using qualitative methods.

When choosing a descriptive method for a research study, surveys also offer the advantage of being able to reach a larger number of participants and collect a greater amount of data. Survey Fundamentals — This resource offers an overview of the survey process including writing questions, response rates, sampling, and so forth.

Research Methods — The link below briefly describes ways in which data is commonly collected, including several types of surveys. Introduction to Survey Research — The following set of slides provides information about the purpose and use of surveys in research, as well as an introduction as to how conduct survey research. The 3 Basic Types of Descriptive Research Methods — Describes the 3 basic types of descriptive research methods — observational, case study, and survey methods.

This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Survey Method This module discusses the purpose and use of surveys as a descriptive research method, as well as provides an introduction to the survey process. Describe the purpose and use of surveys in descriptive research. Describe basic survey designs. Explain the survey process and methods for survey administration and delivery.

Discuss other issues to consider. There are several basic categories of survey design as follows: Cross-sectional Surveys — The data is collected at one point in time from a sample that represents a larger target population Longitudinal Surveys — Used to study data that may change over time.

The three main types of listed below: Trend — Surveying a sample population at different points in time. We now take for granted the periodic table , yet it took descriptive research to devise it. Descriptive research generally precedes explanatory research.

Hence, descriptive research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used as the basis of a causal relationship , where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity.

The description is used for frequencies , averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. In addition, the conceptualizing of descriptive research categorization or taxonomy precedes the hypotheses of explanatory research.

Descriptive research is also known as Statistical Research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied.

The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation. Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a topic. That is, analysis of the past as opposed to the future. Descriptive research is the exploration of the existing certain phenomena. The details of the facts won't be known. Descriptive science is a category of science that involves descriptive research; that is, observing, recording, describing, and classifying phenomena.

Descriptive research is sometimes contrasted with hypothesis-driven research , which is focused on testing a particular hypothesis by means of experimentation. Grimaldi and Michael S.

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MEANING OF THE TERM- DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY RESEARCH METHOD NEERU SALARIA INTRODUCTION According to Best and Kahn (), “The term descriptive research has often been used incorrectly to describe three types of investigation that are different. Perhaps their superficial similarities have obscured their difference.

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Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods, case-study methods and survey methods.

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Descriptive Research Design: Definition, Examples & Types. What Is Survey Research? - Definition, Methods & Types; Descriptive Research Design: Definition, Examples & Types Related Study. Survey Method. This module discusses the purpose and use of surveys as a descriptive research method, as well as provides an introduction to the survey process. Learning Objectives: Describe the purpose and use of surveys in descriptive research. Describe basic survey designs.

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Descriptive research is “aimed at casting light on current issues or problems through a process of data collection that enables them to describe the situation more completely than was possible without employing this method.”. Most often, organizations will use it as a method to reveal and measure the strength of a target group’s opinion, attitude, or behaviour with regards to a given subject. But another common use of descriptive research would be the surveying of demographical traits in a certain group (age, income, marital status, gender, etc.).