Please contact our custom service if you have any questions concerning our service. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Please enter your password. Get instant access to over , papers. Birth Order And Personality. FULL access to essays database. If you cannot find any suitable paper on our site, which happens very rarely, you can always order custom written paper which will be written from scratch by our professional writers and deliver to you on requested time.
Your research paper is written by certified writers Your requirements and targets are always met You are able to control the progress of your writing assigment You get a chance to become an excellent student! Does Birth-order Have An Effec Birth-order could be one way to gain an understanding of friends, family members and co-workers. Research has shown that the birth-order indeed has an effect on personality Teen Pregnancy September 9, Class Hour: What would you do if you became pregnant as a teen, or for the guys, became a father as a teen?
Would it complicate your life? Do you think that you could handle it? Teens are having sex without protection which causes many problems for them Consequently, they may rebel or simply stop trying to please authority figures. Youngest children typically acquire wonderful social skills because of their interactions with older siblings. They are generally charming, playful, and sometimes a little absent-minded.
Research seems to indicate that youngest children tend to be attracted to vocations that are people-oriented, such as sales and teaching. Troha, Youngest children are inclined to be Risk takers, Outgoing, Creative, Funny and charming, Rebellious, Persistent and Lacking in self-discipline. The Importance of Spacing: While researchers do not always agree on how spacing the years between each birth between siblings influences personality and behavior, there is a general belief that children have an easier adjustment if siblings are not extremely close in age.
Sibling rivalry does have a tendency to decrease as the age spread increases, which may result in better-adjusted children. Birth order theories enjoy popular appeal because they provide an intuitive and commonsense explanation for the personality differences between siblings of different birth ranks.
From to the end of the twentieth century researchers conducted more than studies of the relationship between birth order and personality. Overall, studies of the relationship between birth order and personality have yielded very small effect sizes at best. Consequently, one can question whether birth order and personality effects either are noticeable in everyday life or possess significance for clinical practice.
It is likely that birth order and personality effects are more apparent than they are real. Adlerian psychology and contributions from developmental psychology and role theory suggest that personality variables may relate more meaningfully to the roles that siblings construct or are ascribed rather than to actual birth order Hoffman That is, although a child may be the youngest, the gender mix of the siblings, the differences in ages, and other unique variables may combine to create a firstborn role for the youngest child.
Further, sibling roles may mediate the effects of actual birth order and family atmosphere on personality traits Stewart, Stewart, and Campbell Consequently, research using sibling or family roles may be more revealing than studies relying upon actual birth order, especially those that simply split participant samples into firstborn versus later born; this may mask the important effects of the non shared family environment.
In addition to personality, birth order research has also largely focused on its relation to intelligence and scholastic achievement. The literature in this area reveals inconsistent results that have stemmed largely from confounding variables present in many birth order studies, including socioeconomic status, race and ethnicity, and age of participants.
Even studies of the effects of family size have been equivocal. Joseph Rodgers and colleagues analyzed the relationships of birth order and family size to the intelligence quotient IQ within families using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several studies found achievement motivation, rather than intelligence, to be associated with ordinal position in the family.
Later research on birth order and achievement began to focus on aspiration levels and achievement attributions more than simply on academic achievement.
Firstborns attribute success or failure to internal causes and may even underestimate how their situations might have affected success, compared to laterborns. First and middle children scored significantly higher than lastborns on competitiveness. Only children did not differ significantly from any of the other groups on this variable. William Snell, Linda Hargrove, and Toni Falbo explored the relationship between birth order and achievement motivation and found a significant correlation between birth order and one specific facet of achievement motivation, competitiveness.
One of the most remarkable discoveries in the field of psychology during the last several decades has been the finding that siblings who grow up together are almost as different as people plucked at random from the general population.
Behavioral geneticists have shown that only about 5 percent of the variance in personality from one individual to another is associated with the shared family environment—that is, growing up in the same home.
About 40 percent of the variance in personality appears to be genetic in origin, and another 20 percent is associated with errors in measurement. The remaining 35 percent of the variance is attributable to the non shared environment unique experiences that are not shared by siblings.
Sulloway, One important conclusion from this behavioral genetic research is that, for the most part, the family is not a shared environment. One possible source of such non shared experiences is birth order, since children of different birth orders vary in age, size, and family roles.
In addition, siblings compete with one another for parental investment including love, attention, and scarce resources , and parents sometimes favor one child over another even when they try not to do so. Darwinian Theory predicts such competition among siblings, which has been widely documented among animals, fish, insects, and even plants. Sulloway, The principles of genetics help us in understanding this particular form of Darwinian competition.
On average, siblings share only half of their genes, so they are twice as related to themselves as they are to another sibling. Based on the theory of kin selection, siblings are expected to act selfishly toward one another unless the benefits of sharing scarce resources are greater than twice the costs.
Siblings therefore tend to develop context-sensitive strategies for optimizing parental investment— sometimes at the expense of other siblings—and these strategies are influenced by differences in age, size, power, and status within the family. Birth order is an excellent proxy for these differences.
Prior to about , fewer than half of all human offspring ever reached adulthood, so even slight differences in parental investment, or in the competitive advantages developed by siblings, were sufficient to tip the balance in determining who survived and who did not. By cultivating unique and useful family niches, siblings increase their value within the family system.
Firstborns have customarily adopted the role of a surrogate parent, which causes them to be more parent-identified and conservative than younger siblings. Sulloway, Because laterborns cannot baby-sit themselves, they generally seek to develop alternative and unoccupied niches within the family system, a process that seems to involve a predilection for experimentation and openness to experience.
Birth-order research, which encompasses more than two thousand studies, has established a consistent pattern of birth-order differences in personality. These differences can be usefully summarized by the Five Factor Model of personality, which encompasses the dimensions of conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, and neuroticism.
As reflected by their frequent role as surrogate parents, firstborns tend to be more conscientious than laterborns.
By comparison, laterborns tend to be more open to experience than firstborns, especially in those facets of this personality dimension that involve the questioning of family values or the authority of their elders.
Laterborns are also somewhat more agreeable than firstborns, since they generally adopt low-power strategies, including cooperation and acquiescence, that accord with their lesser age, power, and physical size.
In addition, laterborns are more extraverted than firstborns in the specific sense of being fun-loving, excitement seeking, and sociable.
Sulloway, Finally, firstborns and laterborns both manifest aspects of neuroticism, but in different ways. Firstborns are more neurotic in the sense of being anxious about loss of power and status, whereas laterborns are more neurotic in the sense of being self-conscious—an attribute that probably stems from their tendency to compare themselves with older and more accomplished sibling models.
Compared with birth-order differences in personality that are measured within the family, those documented in extra familial contexts tend to be less pronounced. Still, there is considerable evidence that birth-order differences in personality and behavior manifest them in no familial contexts—especially when these behavioral contexts resemble those previously encountered within the family.
To cite an example documented by Catherine Salmon , firstborns and laterborns respond differently to political speeches that use the terms brother and sister as opposed to friend. Extensive research indicates that firstborns tend to have higher IQS than laterborns, although this difference is small IQ is reduced about one point with each successive birth rank in the family.
Explanations for these findings have generally focused on the consequences of increasing family size, since children from large families have lower IQs than children from small families. Sulloway, This theory predicts that firstborns will tend to have higher IQs than laterborns because firstborns spend more time alone with their parents, and more time in smaller sibling groups.
Firstborns also seem to initiate more interactions, both positive and negative, with their younger siblings than vice versa. They are more likely to engage their younger siblings in conversation, but they are also more likely to be verbally disapproving. As compared to older peers, firstborn children tend to instruct younger siblings by providing appropriate feedback and guidance. Baumwell, Firstborn children are temporarily only children and thus are exposed to one-to-one speech with their parents.
When a new child is born, firstborns and their siblings receive less child-directed speech and are privy to multiparty speech. Specifically, mothers appear to provide more linguistic support and more complex grammatical statements to their firstborns even when their firstborns and latter born are observed at the same age. Concordantly, firstborn toddlers have larger vocabularies, reach language milestones earlier, and demonstrate more sophisticated grammar than their siblings.
Baumwell, The early language competence of firstborns may partially explain the proclivity of firstborns to achieve in school. While much of the research on birth order is considered useful, many psychologists are quick to point out that it lacks strong scientific merit. One social psychologist has even likened birth order theory to astrology because of its rather liberal and far-reaching implementation. Another mentions that it is often a way for people to deny responsibility for their behavior.
Judith Blake, author of Family Size and Achievement , believes the size of the family into which a child is born is more important than the order of births in the family. She argues that the fewer the siblings there are, the more attention each child gets from the parents.
And the more attention the child receives, the greater the chances of achievement in school verbal and behavioral skills are used more often through interaction with parents. Probably the biggest setback to birth order research came from the writings of two Swiss psychologists, Cecile Ernst and Jules Angst. In a noteworthy critique of over a thousand studies on birth order, Ernst and Angst openly criticized the method by which many of these studies were conducted. Background variables, they argued, were inadequately controlled within the research, thereby rendering much of the significance of birth order useless.
They further argued that the differences between families and number of siblings might be the cause for particular trends. Troha, In spite of these criticisms, research into birth order and its effects on personality, behavior, achievement, and intellect continue. In fact, a comprehensive research project on birth order by Frank Sulloway, called Born to Rebel , seems to refute much of what Ernst and Angst questioned in regard to the significance of birth order on personality and development.
Sulloway does this through the use of a sophisticated scientific method called meta-analysis, in which pooled studies are used to increase the statistical significance.
In other words, the more data that are examined, the less likely there is for error to occur. Troha, Out of studies, 72 of them substantiated the following components: Firstborns are more conforming, traditional, and closely identified with parents. Firstborns are more responsible, achievement-oriented, and organized.
The idea of birth order affecting personality development has and still somewhat is a point of contention in the field of psychology. Some people have strong beliefs that birth order does have a considerable affect on personality, while others believe that rarely any affect is made on personality.
- Birth order is a commonly discussed topic inside the realms of psychological research. Many studies have been organized to show the differentiation of personality concerning birth order. Characteristics of a personality, absent of birth order, play a monumental role in how a person reacts to social influence.
The birth order does psychologically influence the child. The literature on this topic is wide but it all claims the importance of the birth order for the further life of the child. Alfred Adler was definitely right to say that the desire to be unique is the major leading force for children in the family. Specific purpose: My purpose is to strengthen or change the attitudes and beliefs of the audience in regard to the influence of birth order on personality. Introduction. I. Birth order is one way to gain an understanding of friends, family members, and co-workers/5(3).
Essay on How Birth Order and Family Size Affect Personality Traits - Is there a “personality tag” for each child depending on their birth order. Does the family size, or the parents’ life styles affect anything. Birth Order And Personality Birth Order’s Effect on Personality Environment determines to some extent the personality of a person. There are numerous factors in the environment which could determine variations in the personalities of different individuals.