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Analysis is more than coding
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A Beginning Look at Data Analysis

A Practical Guide , Thousand Oaks: Making Thinking Visible with Atlas. Discourse Analysis DA and Critical Discourse Analysis CDA both encompass a number of approaches to study the world, society, events and psyche as they are produced in the use of language, discourse, writing, talk, conversation or communicative events.

It is generally agreed upon that any explicit method in discourse studies, the humanities and social sciences may be used in CDA research, as long as it is able to adequately and relevantly produce insights into the way discourse reproduces or resists social and political inequality. Thus, the data collection can be comprised of a number of different data formats.

An example is provided by Graffigna and Bosio Textual Analysis for Social Research. Fairclough, Norman; Clive Holes The Critical Study of Language. Graffigna, Guendalina and Bosio, A. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 5 3 , article 5.

Ethnography is a multi-method qualitative approachthat studies people in their naturally occurring settings. The purpose is to provide a detailed, in-depth description of everyday life and practice. An ethnographic understanding is developed through close exploration of several sources like participant observation, observation, interviews, documents, newspapers, magazine articles or artifacts.

The results of an ethnographic study are summaries of observed activities, typifications or the identification of patterns and regularities. Computer applications in qualitative research. Qualitative Social Research, 8 3 , Art. Qualitative Social Research, 10 2 , Art. The founder of Ethnomethodology Harold Garfinkel , developed this methodto better understand the social order people use in making sense of the world through.

As data sources he uses accounts and descriptions of day-to-day experiences. The aim is to discover the methods and rules of social action that people use in their everyday life. The focus is on how-question, rather than why-question as underlying motives are not of interest.

Ethnomethodologists conduct their studies in a variety of ways focusing on naturally occurring data. Central is the immersion in the situation being studied. They reject anything that looks like interview data.

Important for an ethnomethodological analysis is self-reflection and the inspectability of data, thus the reader of an ethnomethodological study should be able to inspect the original data as means to evaluate any claim made by the analyst.

Steps in the process of data analysis include coding by type of discourse, counting frequencies of types of discourses, selecting the main types and checking for deviant cases. Francis, David and Stephen Hester. An invitation to Ethnomethodology. Language, Society and Interaction. Its methodological roots are in phenomenology, social interactionism and ethnographyadapted by business studies and marketing research, but also used in other disciplines like medical research.

The investigation is carried out in the naturalistic environment where the phenomenon occurs. Methods of data collection include participant observation, depth interviews, group interviews and projective techniques. Analysis procedures consist of description, ordering or coding of data and displaying summaries of the data.

Gendered Suffering and Social Transformations: Domestic Violence, Dictatorship and Democracy in Chile. A focus group is a form of group interviewmainly used in marketing research. A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 3rd ed. The focused interview and the focus group — continuities and discontinuities. Public Opinions Quarterly, 51, A manual of problems and procedures.

Frame Analysis has generally been attributed to the work of Erving Goffman and his book: An essay on the organization of experience. This approach tries to explain social phenomena in terms of the everyday use of schemes or frames like beliefs, images or symbols. The number of such frames available to people in making sense of their environment is limited by the particular society they live in. Frame Analysis is largely used in social movement theory, policy studies and health research.

When it comes to analyzing the data, a quantitative and a qualitative approach has been suggested. In quantitative studies the keyword approach is used extracting frames by means of hierarchical cluster or factor analysis.

The software VBPro for example has especificallybeen developed for such procedures. Frames may however also be discovered via a qualitative coding approach. Propaganda Plays of the Woman Suffrage Movement: An Essay on the Organization of Experience.

Media Coverage on European Governance: European Journal of Communication 19 3 Grounded Theory GT is an inductive form of qualitative research that was first introduced by Glaser and Strauss It is a research approach in which the theory is developed from the data, rather than the other way around.

Data collection and analysis are consciously combined, and initial data analysis is used to shape continuing data collection. Strauss in disagreement with Glaser developed the approach further providing a more pragmatic and systematic descriptions of analytic steps, like the four different phases of coding: Sociological research has been greatly influenced by Grounded Theory and the method of coding based constant comparison and the theoretical sampling strategy is widely accepted.

In recent years, further variations of the grounded theory methodology have emerged. For example Kathy Charmaz introduced a constructivist version and Clarke discusses GT after the postmodern turn. Glaser rubbish the use of tape recording and transcription as he considers it a superfluous activity not aiding the process of conceptualizing.

Consequently he advises against the use of software. See a few examples below. Grounded Theory After the Postmodern Turn. Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis: Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory.

Burden, Johann and Roodt, Gert Grounded theory and its application in a recent study on organizational redesign. Some reflections and guidelines. Journal of Human Resource Management, 5 3 , 11 — Qualitative Social Research, 1 1 , Art. The grounded theory method and case study data in IS research: The Creation of Theory: As a theory of interpretation, the hermeneutic tradition stretches all the way back to ancient Greek philosophy. In the middle ages and the Renaissance, hermeneutics emerges as a method to identify the meaning and intent of Biblical scripture.

Today hermeneutics is also used as a strategy to address a broad range of research questions like interpreting human practices,events, and situations. Researchers bring their personal conviction to the analysis, but they need to be open for revision.

In the process of collecting data, a tentative understanding is developed which is then tested against reality. Further understanding is gained if discrepancies between the current interpretation and the new data are recognized.

Thus, the process of understanding is characterized by constant revisions. This is referred to as the hermeneutic cycle. Research Methods for Political Science: Regression models the relationships between dependent and explanatory variables, which are usually charted on a scatterplot.

The regression line also designates whether those relationships are strong or weak. Regression is commonly taught in high school or college statistics courses with applications for science or business in determining trends over time. Regression is not very nuanced. Sometimes, the outliers on a scatterplot and the reasons for them matter significantly.

For example, an outlying data point may represent the input from your most critical supplier or your highest selling product. The nature of a regression line, however, tempts you to ignore these outliers. The trick is to determine the right size for a sample to be accurate. Using proportion and standard deviation methods, you are able to accurately determine the right sample size you need to make your data collection statistically significant.

When studying a new, untested variable in a population, your proportion equations might need to rely on certain assumptions. However, these assumptions might be completely inaccurate. Lesson Summary Data analysis has two prominent methods: Unlock Your Education See for yourself why 30 million people use Study. Become a Member Already a member? Earning College Credit Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.

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Data Analysis Methodology chapter of your dissertation should include discussions about the methods of data analysis. You have to explain in a brief manner how you are going to analyze the primary data you will collect employing the methods explained in this chapter.

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A source of confusion for many people is the belief that qualitative research generates just qualitative data (text, words, opinions, etc) and that quantitative research generates just quantitative data (numbers).

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Data analysis has two prominent methods: qualitative research and quantitative research. Each method has their own techniques. Each method has their own techniques. Interviews and observations are forms of qualitative research, while experiments and surveys are quantitative research. My e-book, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step approach contains a detailed, yet simple explanation of quantitative data analysis methods. The e-book explains all stages of the research process starting from the selection of the research area to writing personal reflection.

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15 Methods of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research Compiled by Donald Ratcliff 1. Typology - a classification system, taken from patterns, themes, or other kinds of groups of data. (Patton pp. ,) John Lofland & Lyn Lofland Ideally, categories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive if possible, often they aren't. In qualitative research, you are either exploring the application of a theory or model in a different context or are hoping for a theory or a model to emerge from the data.