A majority of the surveyed countries have laws specifically targeting the problem of human trafficking and almost all the surveyed countries are parties to relevant international instruments addressing human trafficking. This report describes the law of twenty jurisdictions on the right to education, and whether the right appears in the national constitution or in statutory law. The jurisdictions selected for review have different constitutional arrangements and reflect diverse political, cultural, and economic experiences.
All of the surveyed jurisdictions recognize the right to education. Fifteen of them provide for the right in their national constitutions, while five provide for the right through legislation. All reflect an interesting diversity in how the right to education is recognized in varied jurisdictions around the globe.
This report provides information on select international and regional measures and the laws of 97 jurisdictions from around the world that relate to allowing children to reside in prison with an incarcerated parent. Additionally, most of jurisdictions surveyed require that prisons that admit children meet certain standards. This report surveys laws governing registration of lobbyists in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. A French law requiring registration will go into effect on July 1, The UK enacted a lobbying registration law in that requires lobbyists whose annual lobbying business reaches a certain threshold to disclose specified information.
Germany does not have a mandatory register for lobbyists at the federal level, although it does have a voluntary register. This report discusses the regulation of campaign financing and spending in national elections and the availability of free airtime for campaign advertising in Austria, Canada, Finland, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Specifically, the individual country surveys address the extent to which each country applies limits on the amounts that can be contributed to political parties and candidates, the existence of ceilings on campaign expenditures, and the availability of free airtime for broadcast advertising.
Countries included in this study demonstrate different models used in regulating campaign financing. This report surveys laws and practices regarding feedback on customer satisfaction from users of government services. The jurisdictions selected provide an array of representative approaches to obtaining feedback regarding user satisfaction. Some countries have enacted laws requiring agencies to obtain information on customer satisfaction and incorporate such data into quality improvement efforts.
Many of the countries reviewed here have established programs for evaluating customer satisfaction of public services. Some countries have provided for large-scale, centralize surveying of customer satisfaction. This report contains information on 21 countries on the question of whether a bond, deposit, or fee is required in order to protest procedure in government procurement. The majority of countries included in this report require the payment of fees for an administrative review.
These fees can be forfeited if the claim is found to be frivolous. It was first applied in the federal budget of Details of the debt brake are implemented in articles 13 to 18 of the Financial Budget Act. Compliance is monitored by the Swiss Federal Audit Office.
This report summarizing laws on abortion in selected European countries shows diverse approaches to the regulation of abortion in Europe. A comparative summary with maps is included. This report describes the approval process for medical devices in the European Union and fifteen countries , and also indicates whether or not an expedited approval procedure is available.
Electronic cigarettes in Germany are currently not subject to any age-related access restrictions. The Federal Administrative Court concluded recently that nicotine-containing liquids in electronic cigarettes are not medicinal products and therefore can be sold without approval in accordance with the Medicinal Products Act.
It is still unclear whether such liquids are covered by tobacco regulations and antismoking laws. This report contains discussions of the regulations addressing health emergencies in 25 jurisdictions , including countries from six continents, the European Union, and the World Health Organization. All surveys included in this report review government structures tasked with delivering public health protection, relevant legislative frameworks for addressing health emergencies, and the powers of government institutions in times of health crises and their ability to mitigate the consequences of such crises.
Analyses of the regulation of such issues as disease surveillance and notification systems are also provided. A comparative summary and a bibliography are included. This report surveys 71 foreign countries , plus the United States and the European Union , on the issue of whether their laws permit legal immigrants to bring family members into the country for purposes of residence.
For many of the jurisdictions covered, the information provided focuses exclusively on family reunification for permanent residents. A bibliography of selected international and comparative law sources is provided. This report surveys laws related to asylum granting procedures in countries that are States Parties to the U.
It identifies fees charged to applicants in connection with an application for asylum. According to the research findings, the vast majority of countries do not charge a fee for applying for asylum. The rising number of asylum seekers and immigrants in the late s made migration policy a focus of the federal elections in The Migration Act overhauled German migration policy and placed the focus on long-term residency for migrants, in particular for skilled workers, and on integration measures. The latest amendment to the migration framework, the Integration Act, entered into force in August This report surveys the laws related to the treatment of undocumented migrants who arrived as minors, their eligibility for obtaining legal status and access to social benefits, and their possibilities for becoming citizens.
Additionally, all country surveys provide a general overview of national migration legislation, and past amnesty programs are reviewed to illustrate national efforts in resolving problems involving the legalization of undocumented youth.
A comparative summary and map is included. A New Zealand case involving an application for refugee status based on the effects of climate change in the Pacific Island nation of Kiribati has received media attention around the world. This report surveys the laws of eight democratic foreign jurisdictions with respect to whether there are special laws concerning children asylum-seekers, particularly unaccompanied children. As discussed more fully in the jurisdictional surveys, all of the jurisdictions covered in this report have provisions treating asylum-seeking minors differently from asylum-seeking adults.
This report describes the law and policy on refugees and other asylum seekers in 22 geographically dispersed countries and, at the supranational level, in the European Union. The individual surveys cover such topics as participation in relevant international conventions; laws and regulations governing the admission of refugees and handling refugee claims; processes for handling refugees arriving at the border; procedures for evaluating whether an applicant is entitled to refugee status; the accommodations and assistance provided to refugees in the jurisdiction; requirements for naturalization; and whether asylum policy has been affected by international emergencies, such as the current refugee crisis in Europe.
This report provides information on the laws of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Sweden, and the United Kingdom regarding the right to counsel for detained migrants.
All countries included in the study allow detained migrants to be assisted by a lawyer. In most of the countries, it is up to the migrant or asylum seeker to hire counsel; the government does not have an obligation to provide legal services to a person who entered the country without a valid visa or is subject to deportation.
The country surveys reveal a wide variety of legal and regulatory approaches to this issue and the involvement of an array of actors at various jurisdictional levels. This report surveys laws regulating the mandatory legal deposit of electronic materials. Each country survey provides information on the history of e-deposit programs in the country, identifies the national institutions charged with collecting and preserving electronic materials, analyzes the legal framework for depositing digital materials, lists the requirements applicable to publishers of such material, and describes the measures taken to bring e-deposit programs in line with the restrictions established by national copyright laws.
This report contains data on countries, indicating whether or not published books are subject to a mandatory deposit requirement at the national level and, if so, how many copies are required, where they must be deposited, and whether the deposit is part of the copyright system. Citations to the controlling legislation for mandatory deposits are provided. In all but 13 of the jurisdictions surveyed, deposits are required.
For some of these thirteen jurisdictions, deposits are voluntary, while in others, no information regarding deposit practices could be found. Asterisks in the copyright system column indicate that the deposit requirement is contained in the copyright law. This report surveys the law on extensions and adjustments of patents in nine jurisdictions: All of the surveyed jurisdictions provide for a standard patent term of twenty years, and all of them except Canada provide for extensions of protection for certain products that are subject to regulatory approval before they can be marketed.
While Canada currently does not have legislation providing for extensions of patent protection, it is currently negotiating a trade agreement with the European Union that in draft form provides for patent term extensions of two to five years for qualifying pharmaceutical products.
In Egypt, free access to the justice system and legal aid are constitutional rights. In recent years, parliaments around the world have enhanced their websites in order to improve access to legislative information and other parliamentary resources.
Innovative features allow constituents and researchers to locate and utilize detailed information on laws and lawmaking in various ways. These include tracking tools and alerts, apps, the use of open data technology, and different search functions. In some cases, information on more than one website is provided where separate sites have been established for different chambers of the national parliament.
These reports describe national parliaments in a variety of jurisdictions. They trace the establishment of the current national parliamentary systems and locations of these Parliaments. They also discuss the elections of each Parliament's memebers, the members' terms of office, and the legislative process by which bills are introduced and passed into law.
The report covers 11 jurisdictions, the report adds India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan; and the report adds six more reports including the European Parliament and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. This report provides information on parliamentary oversight mechanisms of the executive branch in Canada , Germany , Italy , Japan , Poland , Sweden , the United Kingdom , and the United States. Specialized permanent or ad hoc parliamentary committees tasked with oversight of government actions in specific areas operate in all the countries surveyed.
Both the United States and Canada have established special agencies dedicated to overseeing government activities. This report summarizes inheritance law in the 19th and 20th centuries in France , Germany , and the United States. French law of the period reflected the egalitarian system of inheritance brought about by the French Revolution, even after reforms instituted by the Napoleonic Code. Nineteenth-century German law was splintered into territorial regimes characterized by differentiated succession rules for the nobility versus the peasantry—a distinction that continued to some extent even after the unified German Civil Code became effective in Early inheritance law in the United States, premised on English law, was a matter of state law as it is today and thus varied, but during the period in question became much more egalitarian with regard to the inheritance rights of women.
In a five-to-two decision, the Israeli Supreme Court rejected petitions by two Jewish husbands against rulings by rabbinical courts subjecting them to the application of twelfth-century social religious sanctions not expressly authorized under Israeli law.
The sanctions were designed to pressure husbands to comply with divorce judgements issued against them by rabbinical courts. The Supreme Court accepted the petitions only with regard to one specific sanction that was held to conflict with current principles of Israeli law.
Marriage and divorce in Israel are generally subject to the application of personal status laws of the parties involved. Jewish Israelis who do not qualify under Jewish law or who do not wish to undergo religious ceremonies are trying to find alternative ways to marry and divorce. The Law on Spousal Agreements for Persons Without a Religion partially addressed the problems of couples where both spouses do not belong to any recognized religion. It did not, however, resolve the problems shared by couples where one spouse does belong to such a religion.
The law clearly does not provide a new civil law option to religiously recognized marriages. This report summarizes the treatment of homosexuality in the criminal law of 49 African nations. Of the jurisdictions surveyed, only South Africa affirmatively permits same-sex marriage and only Nigeria and Uganda explicitly prohibit gay rights advocacy. This chart lists royalty rates for crude oil production in selected countries where production occurs on lands owned or controlled in whole or part by the national government.
The countries selected include leading oil-producing countries that impose royalties; countries that do not impose royalties are excluded. While there are other fiscal instruments used to raise revenue from oil production, this chart focuses solely on royalties. The chart below contains information on laws regulating or banning the use of leg-hold traps in jurisdictions. In a number of jurisdictions the law generally regulates or bans all traps, or prohibits trapping in particular areas, without separately addressing the question of leg-hold traps.
Countries with laws that merely provide in general terms that animals must be treated humanely have not been included. Some countries, such as India and Sri Lanka, have at times considered restrictions on traps but to date have not adopted them; such countries are not listed here.
This report includes surveys of 11 jurisdictions. Fuel quality standards, renewable fuel requirements, and vehicle emissions standards are covered, as are strategies for meeting international requirements to address climate change. The European Union and International Protocols are also discussed. This report summarizes enacted laws on the cultivation and sale of GMOs, as well as public opinion on GM products.
In Sweden the slaughter of domestic animals must be done following sedation of the animal. This requirement was first adopted in by the Act on the Slaughter of Domestic Animals and entered into force in The suffering of the animal was referenced as the main concern and remains so today. Critics of the current law argue that it infringes on the religious freedoms of Swedish citizens, most notably Jews and Muslims. The UK government has amended the Merchant Shipping Act and has met with industry stakeholders and EU representatives to explore ways to ensure compliance with the new regulations with minimal cost and regulation, secure EU financing to mitigate the significant investment costs for shipowners and ports, and guarantee fair and consistent enforcement of these regulations throughout the EU so that UK ports are not unfairly disadvantaged.
This table compares the regulation of biometric data obtained in connection with passport applications and the preservation of such data in fifteen selected countries. The Court held that the Directive entailed serious interference with the rights to privacy and personal data protection of individuals guaranteed by the Charter of Fundamental Rights, and also failed to establish limits on access by competent national authorities.
This report contains information on laws regulating the collection of intelligence in the European Union, United Kingdom, France, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, and Sweden. The report details how EU Members States control activities of their intelligence agencies and what restrictions are imposed on information collection.
A comparative summary is available. This report updates a report on the same topic issued from Because issues of national security are under the jurisdiction of individual EU Member States and are regulated by domestic legislation, individual country surveys provide examples of how the European nations control activities of their intelligence agencies and what restrictions are imposed on information collection.
This report describes the law of 12 nations and the European Union on whether the government, pursuant to a court order or other government process, can require companies to decrypt encrypted communications or provide the government with the means to do so.
Some of the surveys provide additional information on related surveillance issues like the law on monitoring and intercepting communications. The report finds that while there is a range of approaches among the surveyed countries, a majority make provision for specified intelligence or law enforcement agencies to obtain access to encrypted communications or the means of decryption under certain circumstances.
Five non-EU jurisdictions are also surveyed. A comparative summary is included. They describe the legal framework for the collection, use, and transfer of data, and examine whether existing laws are adequate to deal with online privacy in an era of rapid technological development and globalization.
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BUSM Mid-term 1 review. Contains (mostly) possible short answer questions for mid term 1. Contains questions from Chapter 1, Criminal Law, and Contract Formation.
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