American Psychological Association, or APA, style is a set of guidelines often used when writing in the social sciences, such as psychology, anthropology and history. APA guidelines stipulate rules for punctuation, tables, headings, statistics and citations. Citing your sources according to APA style helps you avoid plagiarism and boost your paper's credibility.
When you cite or mention a book in a paper, you should italicize the title. Citations of books in your Reference List should begin with the last name of the book's author, then the author's initials. Next, write the year of publication within parentheses. After the year, list the title of the book in sentence case -- only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle, if applicable, just as if you were writing a sentence.
The different formats that might be applied are capitalization see Publication Manual , section 4. The formatting of the titles of sources you use in your paper depends on two factors: The table below provides formatting directions and examples:. Part of a greater whole e.
As you can see in the table above, the titles of works that stand alone such as a book or a report are italicized in both the text and the reference list.
In contrast, the titles of works that are part of a greater whole such as an article, which is part of a journal, or a book chapter, which is part of a book are not italicized in either place, and only in the text are they put inside quotation marks. If you are having difficulty determining whether something stands alone such as a webpage that may or may not be part of a greater website , choose not to italicize.
Title Case Versus Sentence Case. APA Style uses two kinds of capitalization to format reference titles, which are also mentioned in the table above: Students should read assignment sheets and course syllabi. Writers seeking publication should check submission guidelines. If you still can't tell what style you should be using after reading the directions, contact the instructor or publisher.
Be able to recognize the two components of citation. When citing an essay, you include information in two places: The Works Cited is just a bibliography: The citation information you include in the body of the paper itself is called the "in-text citation.
Include the right information in the in-text citation. You must include a page number that tells the reader where, in the source, they can find this information. The most basic structure for an in-text citation looks like this: In MLA, in-text citations always come at the end of the sentence. The period that would end the sentence comes after the parenthetical citation. Learn when in-text citations are necessary. Every single source that contains information you used must be included in your Works Cited and cited in-text.
The most obvious time to use an in-text citation is when you quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author. Failing to attribute information that is the product of someone else's work is plagiarism. The repercussions can be severe. For example, it is common knowledge that World War II broke out in Nobody owns that information. But specific strategies, quotes from important figures in the war, and statistics about how many people were involved in the war are all examples of specific, proprietary information.
The author of the source you used to research that information had to do the work of finding that information out. You must attribute it to them. Choose the appropriate in-text citation method.
But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation. A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals.
Adjust in-text citations if you have multiple sources from an author. When they look up the source on your Works Cited sheet, they will find two different articles by James Smith. To avoid this confusion, you must include a shortened version of the essay's title, so the readers know which essay to look for.
It could be argued that Sethe is haunted by "the physical persistence of memory" Smith, "Beloved" Include the first initial if you have authors with the same last name. An in-text citation of Smith doesn't tell the reader which author provided the information.
In that case, include the first initial of the author's last name in the in-text citation: Format the citation in the Works Cited.
When the reader sees a quote or idea that they would like to know more about, they will look up the source author by the last name you listed in the in-text citation. They will also know which page of the source they should look at to find the information they want.
Depending on where you found the essay, your citation will follow a different format. Regardless of what format you follow, one thing remains constant across all citations. You always indent all lines that come after the first line of a Works Cited citation.
This lets the reader know where one citation ends and the next one begins. MLA also uses title case ever time a title is given. This means that first word and all major words are capitalized: The Sound and the Fury.
This is distinguished from sentence case, in which only the first word is capitalized: The sound and the fury. Follow the format for an essay found in an anthology. In this case, you must include the following information in this exact order: Publisher, Year of Publication. Include different information for essays published in journals.
American Psychological Association, or APA, style is a set of guidelines often used when writing in the social sciences, such as psychology, anthropology and history. APA guidelines stipulate rules for punctuation, tables, headings, statistics and citations.
No author: Cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter, and italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report.
In an essay formatted in APA style, the title of a book also appears in italics. Additionally, any words in the title that are four letters or longer should be capitalized. Italicization is also required for edited collections of short stories and essays, movies, television series, documentaries and albums. Edited books with one or more authors should follow the basic structure of a book reference and include the initials, last name, and 'Ed.' in parentheses after the book title. For example: Adler, A. ().
In short, a title you would italicize within the body of a paper will also be italicized on a reference page. However, a title you'd place in quotation marks within the body of the paper (such as the title of an article within a journal) will be written in normal lettering and will not be in quotation marks. The American Psychological Association (APA) has specific guidelines on how to include an article title in the text of your writing. Consider section of the APA Publication Manual "Use of Italics;" according to it, italics should be used for titles of books, periodicals, films, videos, television shows, and microfilm.