The first printed book in Hindi was John Gilchrist's Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language which was published in All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Information about Hindi http: Online Hindi lessons http: Learn Hindi online with Rocket Languages. Kashmiri Dard group , Sindhi northwestern group , Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, Nepali, Gujarati eastern, east-central, central and northern groups , Bengali, Assamese and Oriya eastern group and Marathi and Konkani southern group.
While Konkani, with a total strength of 1. It may be worthwhile to recapitulate the historical processes that led to the evolution of language regions in India Box 6. It is understood that the Indo-Aryan was the last to arrive. It was preceded by Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan and Austric.
However, there is no clarity about the chronological sequence in which the different families came to affect the situation in India. This question has been partly answered by the linguists. Austro-Asiatic, Sino-Tibetan or Dravidian?
The two outliers of this domain—Khasi and Nicobarese—have their enclaves in Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands respectively. The two pockets are separated by a vast expanse of the sea. Santali is the foremost among the Munda languages. About one-half of them live in Bihar, 35 per cent in West Bengal and 13 per cent in Orissa. The Santals living in Assam, numbering ,, also declared Santali as their mother tongue at the census. The domain of the Ho language lies in Bihar and Orissa. Two-thirds of all Ho speakers are confined to Bihar and the remaining one-third to Orissa.
However, the Savara speakers are mostly confined to Orissa. The Tibetan speakers, however, have a wider spread as they are distributed over many states in India. The Tibetans are of course in exile in India and live in camps and colonies especially created for them in several states. More than 97 per cent of the Adi speakers are confined to Arunachal Pradesh.
Of the languages of the Bodo group, Bodo is largely specific to Assam where 97 per cent of its speakers live. The domains of the Garo and Tripuri lie in Meghalaya and Tripura respectively. About 80 per cent of the Garo speakers are confined to Meghalaya whereas 17 per cent of them are based in Assam. About 93 per cent of the Tripuri speakers are confined to Tripura, although in recent years a section of their population has also moved out to Mizoram and Assam. Their speakers are mostly concentrated in Assam and Meghalaya.
However, a small proportion of Rabha speakers is also found in the northern districts of West Bengal. Most of the speech territory of the Naga group of languages is shared between Nagaland and Manipur.
On the other hand, Khezha and Mao are spoken both in Manipur and Nagaland. The Kuki-Chin languages are confined to the states of Manipur and Mizoram. A section of the Manipuri population about 10 per cent has also moved out to Assam. Manipuri speakers were also enumerated in Tripura, Nagaland and other parts of the northeast, although in small numbers. Lushai is confined to Mizoram. Manipur presents a case of linguistic plurality. In fact, the state is the home of many speech communities belonging to both the Naga and Kuki-Chin groups.
Lakher has its domain in Mizoram only. Migration in recent years has taken the Kuki speakers to other parts of the northeast, such as Assam, Nagaland and Tripura. While the Meiteis, Pangals and Mayangs are plain-dwellers, the tribes, such as Kuki-Chins and Nagas are hill-dwellers. The ethno- lingual situation in Manipur suggests that geographical factors have promoted the emergence of homogeneous dialect territories.
These monolithic dialect territories are contiguous. The presence of as many as 29 major speech communities in Manipur has contributed to a type of ethno-centrism for the survival of speeches or Patois coupled with other socio-cultural differences.
Ethnic groups have often indulged in competition resulting in inter-ethnic conflicts. In any case ethnic groups strive for the preservation of their dialects even if it results in diminishing interaction between different dialect groups.
Over time linguistic plurality has resulted in bilingualism or multilingualism. Many tribes have adopted elements of Meitei-Lon for mutual inter-communication Box 6.
As is generally known, the four southern states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala are the home of the major Dravidian languages, viz. The speakers of these languages have also moved out to other states, particularly the neighbouring states of the south in the recent past. The geographical spread of these languages is evident from Table 6. Evidently, these languages display a high degree of concentration in their home states. The highest degree of concentration is seen in the case of Malayalam, followed by Tamil.
On the other hand, the lowest degree of concentration is revealed in the case of Telugu. There are several minor speech communities within the Dravidian family. Notable among them are: The Kurukh-Oraon and Malto are confined to Bihar. They belong to the northern branch of the Dravidian family.
Gondi, which is classified as a language of the central Dravidian branch, is the traditional dialect of the Gonds. However, recent census data show a steep decline in the numerical strength of the Gondi speakers.
At the census, the Gondi-speaking population numbered just 2. More than 90 per cent of the Gondi mother tongue speakers live in Madhya Pradesh 70 per cent and Maharashtra 21 per cent. The remaining population is found in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. In other states, their number is too small. Both in terms of numerical strength and the territorial extent the Indo-European languages surpass all other language families in India.
The speech territory extends from Rajasthan in the west to Assam in the east and from Jammu and Kashmir in the north to Goa in the south.
Keeping in view their importance as many as 13 of the Indo-European languages have been included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. The dominance of Hindi is evident from the fact that there were million speakers who claimed it as their mother tongue in the census.
About 81 per cent of the total population of Bihar, 91 per cent of Haryana and 89 per cent of Himachal Pradesh claimed affinity to Hindi. The respective percentages for Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh were 89 and The story of the Hindi-speaking population is rather complicated. There are no less than 50 dialects which are grouped under Hindi. These dialects are actually regional variants of a spoken language of which the standardized form written in the Devnagri script is the official Hindi.
Three-fifths of all Hindi speakers are concentrated in the two northern states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Of the remaining, about 17 per cent live in Madhya Pradesh and 12 per cent in Rajasthan. In terms of numerical strength Bengali comes next to Hindi. While its speakers are heavily concentrated in West Bengal, a sizeable proportion of Bengali speakers is also found in the neighbouring states of Assam, Bihar and Tripura. Marathi is next to Bengali.
About 93 per cent of its speakers live in Maharashtra alone. However, Marathi is also spoken by a section of population in Karnataka as well as Madhya Pradesh. Urdu holds the fourth rank among the Indo-Aryan languages. Its core region overlaps with that of the Hindi. About one-half of all Urdu speakers are concentrated in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. A section of population in Tamil Nadu also claims Urdu as mother tongue Fig.
Migration and settlement in neighbouring Maharashtra have resulted in the emergence of Gujarati speakers in that state. While the domain of Punjabi lies in Punjab, it is widely spoken over the entire northwestern region, particularly Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and northern Rajasthan. In the east, almost 99 per cent of the Assamese speakers are confined to Assam. The domain of the Assamese is surrounded on the north, east, south-east and the south by Tibeto-Burman and Austric languages.
Together these states share more than 80 per cent of the total strength of its speakers. The domain of the Konkani lies on the Konkan coast from Maharashtra to northern Kerala.
More than 90 per cent of the Konkani speakers are confined to the states of Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra. In fact, they mainly live in the littoral region in the neighbourhood of Goa. Some speakers of the Konkani have also dispersed to other neighbouring states, such as Kerala and Gujarat as well as the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
Since the census was not conducted in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, the home of the Kashmiri language, it is difficult to describe the patterns of geographic distribution of the Kashmiri speakers. Outside the state a population of 56, persons returned Kashmiri as their mother tongue. A small proportion They are scattered all over the northeast although in small numbers.
Initially, the Sindhis came to the neighbouring regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat. Later, they dispersed to other western and northern states. At the census, about two-thirds of all Sindhi speakers in India were enumerated in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Of the remaining one-third, the two states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh shared together 15 per cent each. The language scene in tribal areas of India deserves a mention. The scene in northeastern India is somewhat different. There, the tribes have been empowered to manage their own political affairs.
These measures have paved the way for their rehabilitation in the national polity. However, a majority of Indian tribes lives in the mid-Indian region where their participation in the political processes is nominal. Their traditional habitats lie divided between several states. They do not have much of a say in policy formulation. Language seems to have suffered the most.
First, the developmental processes initiated since independence seem to have contributed towards the disintegration of tribal economies, and their communitarian way of life. In fact, the free market economy has encircled completely the petty tribal commodity trade. Secondly, expansion of primary education has brought tribal children face to face to a new cultural situation. This has paved the way for their becoming bilingual. The ultimate effect is on their traditional dialects which are on the way to decline and eventual death.
It has been noted that the Indian tribes display a very high degree of diversity in their language affinity. Despite the relative isolation of the tribal communities there have been contact areas in which give- and-take between the tribal and non-tribal languages has continued throughout history.
This is evident from the fact that while the tribes communicate mainly in the Nishada, Kirata and Dravidian languages, they have also adopted several speech-forms of the Indo-Aryan family. We have already seen that the Munda- speaking zone extends over a vast area from the Aravallis in the west to the Raj Mahal hills in the east. A striking feature of the language scene in tribal areas is the growing shift in language affinity of the tribal communities.
An evaluation of the census data reveals gaps between the numerical strength of the ethnic tribals, say the Mundas, Santals and the Gonds and those sections of the Munda, Santal and Gond population who declared their own dialects as their mother tongue, say at the census. This lack of conformity between ethnic identity and language affinity reveals the process of language shift in a significant way.
There can be several plausible explanations for this phenomenon. Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 7 February The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Archived from the original PDF on 9 September Archived from the original PDF on 31 January Department of Official Language. Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 9 June Archived from the original PDF on 8 July Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 3 May Official site of the Fijian Government.
Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 14 October Archived from the original on 11 February Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 2 June Bilingualism in Schools and Society: Language, Identity, and Policy, Second Edition. A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition: Aspects of Hindi Phonology. Archived from the original on 19 September Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 14 February The Complete Course for Beginners.
Retrieved 19 July Modern Hindi grammar PDF. Outline of Hindi grammar: International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: In International Phonetic Association. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: English Heart, Hindi Heartland: University of California Press. In Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl. An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. New England Publishing Associates.
In Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh. Snell, Rupert; Weightman, Simon Teach Yourself Hindi ed. Taj, Afroz A door into Hindi. Retrieved 8 November Standard Hindi Standard Urdu ; Dialects: Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa. Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki. Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi.
Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi. Domari Khandeshi Romani list of languages. Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi. Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari.
Konkani Kukna Marathi others.. Retrieved from " https:
Free Hindi Nibandh on variety of category for school going kids. Improve Hindi Essay writing skills of kids by making them read Webdunia Hindi Nibandh. Get Essay Hindi, Hindi Nibandh.
Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments Save Paper; 3 Page; Words; Essay structure. Essay Structure Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument.
Essays in Hindi: Largest collection of Hindi Essays for School Students, College Students and Civil Service Aspirants. 26/6/ Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi by Nilakshi Read this Essay on “Benefit and Loss of .
Read this essay specially written for you on “Importance of Hindi language” in Hindi Language Home ›› Related Essays: Essay on The Importance of Vision in Life in Hindi language Essay on Importance of Radio in Hindi language “Importance of Library” (Essay in Hindi Language) Essay on The Importance of Religion in Life in Hindi [ ]. FIFTY YEARS OF LANGUAGE PLANNING FOR MODERN HINDI The Official Language of India 1. ABSTRACT Hindi - according to the Census of India, is the mother tongue of ,, persons (22% of the entire Indian population), and is spoken as a language (which includes 47 or so mother tongues cobbled up under it) by ,, persons (% of the entire Indian population).