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# Research Methodology

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Remember that the purpose of a hypothesis is to find the answer to a question. The first thing you should do if you want to answer a question is to find as much information on the topic as you can. Before you come up with a specific hypothesis, spend some time doing research. Then, start thinking of questions you still have. After thoroughly researching your question, you should have an educated guess about how things work.

This guess about the answer to your question is where your hypothesis comes from. Let's imagine that you want to know why the leaves on the tree in your front yard change color in the fall. First, you would research this phenomenon. You observe what you see happen and read about the subject. You discover that the color change happens when the temperature cools. What question does this information make you ask? You come up with the following question: If it can be tested, you'll write a hypothesis that states what you expect to find.

Your hypothesis could be 'If lower temperatures cause leaves to change color and the temperature surrounding a tree is decreased, then the leaves will change color. Let's learn how to properly write a hypothesis using the previous example of tomorrow's test. Examine the differences in the following hypotheses:. This statement is not clear enough to be useful. Your hypothesis should be as specific as possible. You're trying to find the answer to a question. If the hypothesis is vague, it's unclear how to find the answer to your question.

Get access risk-free for 30 days, just create an account. This statement makes a common mistake. You have written a simple cause and effect prediction that is based on an unstated assumption. You are assuming that not studying lowers test performance. You want to minimize these assumptions when you state your hypothesis. A hypothesis is clearer if you state a proposed relationship before making the prediction. If not studying lowers test performance and I do not study, then I will get a lower grade on the test.

This hypothesis states a proposed relationship between studying and test performance. It is worded so that it can be tested and it makes a clear prediction of what will happen. The statement communicates that if one thing happens, then a second thing will occur. We've used a couple of examples already, but let's look at some more examples of good and poor hypotheses.

The following examples will help you better understand how a good hypothesis should look. Put simply, a hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction. More specifically, it describes in concrete terms what you expect will happen in a certain circumstance. A hypothesis is used to determine the relationship between two variables , which are the two things that are being tested. One variable is independent and is the cause of any changes in the outcome. The other variable is dependent and is the outcome itself.

In addition to requiring these kinds of variables, hypotheses need to be testable and measurable. Finally, to develop a hypothesis, you must first figure out what question you have about a particular topic.

From there, you must research all you can about this topic until you can make an educated guess at the answer to your question. And that is your hypothesis! To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree.

Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? The videos on Study. Students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction. By creating an account, you agree to Study. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. What is a Hypothesis? You will discover the purpose of a hypothesis then learn how one is developed and written.

Examples are provided to aid your understanding, and there is a quiz to test your knowledge. Try it risk-free for 30 days. An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continue watching. Register to view this lesson Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student I am a teacher. What teachers are saying about Study. What Is Inductive Reasoning?

Are you still watching? Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds. Add to Add to Add to. Want to watch this again later? What is Hypothesis Testing? Selecting a Problem to Research. What is Historical Research? Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Usually, the peer review process involves experts in the same field who are consulted by editors to give a review of the scholarly works produced by a colleague of theirs from an unbiased and impartial point of view, and this is usually done free of charge.

The tradition of peer reviews being done for free has however brought many pitfalls which are also indicative of why most peer reviewers decline many invitations to review. The open access movement assumes that all information generally deemed useful should be free and belongs to a "public domain", that of "humanity".

For instance, most indigenous communities consider that access to certain information proper to the group should be determined by relationships. There is alleged to be a double standard in the Western knowledge system. On the one hand, "digital right management" used to restrict access to personal information on social networking platforms is celebrated as a protection of privacy, while simultaneously when similar functions are utilised by cultural groups i.

Even though Western dominance seems to be prominent in research, some scholars, such as Simon Marginson, argue for "the need [for] a plural university world". This could be due to changes in funding for research both in the East and the West. Focussed on emphasizing educational achievement, East Asian cultures, mainly in China and South Korea, have encouraged the increase of funding for research expansion. In several national and private academic systems, the professionalisation of research has resulted in formal job titles.

In present-day Russia, the former Soviet Union and in some post-Soviet states the term researcher Russian: The term is also sometimes translated as research fellow , research associate , etc. Academic publishing is a system that is necessary for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience. The system varies widely by field and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form.

There is also a large body of research that exists in either a thesis or dissertation form. These forms of research can be found in databases explicitly for theses and dissertations. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine. Most established academic fields have their own scientific journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields.

The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields, from the print to the electronic format. A study suggests that researchers should not give great consideration to findings that are not replicated frequently. Since about the early s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common.

Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access. Most funding for scientific research comes from three major sources: These are managed primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors. Many senior researchers such as group leaders spend a significant amount of their time applying for grants for research funds.

These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research but also as a source of merit. The Social Psychology Network provides a comprehensive list of U. Government and private foundation funding sources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the search for knowledge. For other uses, see Research disambiguation. For other uses, see Researcher disambiguation. For Wikipedia's policy against directly including in articles the results of editor-conducted research, see Wikipedia: Original research redirects here. For the Wikipedia policy, see Wikipedia: This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article needs to be updated. This subsection's claims are potentially outdated in the "digital age" given that near-total penetration of Web access among scholars worldwide enables any scholar[s] to submit papers to any journal anywhere.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Academic ranks , Academics , and Scientists. Retrieved on 27 October from [1]. Retrieved 20 May Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research 3rd ed. Original research is considered a primary source".

Carpenter Library, University of North Florida. Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 11 January Occupational Outlook Handbook, edition. Research versus Teaching" PDF. A Guide to Historical Method. On measuring artistic research output" PDF. Retrieved 14 August Journal for Artistic Research. Bern University of the Arts. What is artistic research?

What is at stake — Qu'est ce que l'enjeu? Arts, Research, Innovation and Society. Gerald Bast, Elias G. A Glossary for Social Practice: Perspectives on Artistic Research and Academia Chapter Publishing Art in Academia, Leiden: An hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete rather than theoretical terms what you expect will happen in your study.

Not all studies have hypotheses. Sometimes a study is designed to be exploratory see inductive research. There is no formal hypothesis, and perhaps the purpose of the study is to explore some area more thoroughly in order to develop some specific hypothesis or prediction that can be tested in future research.

A single study may have one or many hypotheses. Actually, whenever I talk about an hypothesis, I am really thinking simultaneously about two hypotheses. Let's say that you predict that there will be a relationship between two variables in your study.

The way we would formally set up the hypothesis test is to formulate two hypothesis statements, one that describes your prediction and one that describes all the other possible outcomes with respect to the hypothesized relationship. Your prediction is that variable A and variable B will be related you don't care whether it's a positive or negative relationship.

Then the only other possible outcome would be that variable A and variable B are not related. Usually, we call the hypothesis that you support your prediction the alternative hypothesis, and we call the hypothesis that describes the remaining possible outcomes the null hypothesis.

Sometimes we use a notation like H A or H 1 to represent the alternative hypothesis or your prediction, and H O or H 0 to represent the null case.

You have to be careful here, though.

## Main Topics

A hypothesis is used in an experiment to define the relationship between two variables. The purpose of a hypothesis is to find the answer to a question. The purpose of a hypothesis is to find the answer to a question.

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The research hypothesis is a paring down of the problem into something testable and falsifiable. In the above example, a researcher might speculate that the decline in the fish stocks is due to prolonged over fishing.