This form of the disease exhibits more episodes of mania and depression than bipolar. There are medications that can be prescribed, that can help control the disease, and let people affected lead normal lives.
Lithium has been the primary treatment of bipolar disorder since its introduction in the 's. Its main function is to stabilize the cycling characteristic of bipolar disorder.
In four controlled studies by F. Lithium is also the primary drug used for long- term maintenance of bipolar disorder. In a majority of bipolar patients, it lessens the duration, frequency, and severity of the episodes of both mania and depression. Some of the side effects include thirst, weight gain, nausea, diarrhea, and edema. Patients who are unresponsive to lithium treatment are often those who experience dysphoric mania, mixed states, or rapid cycling bipolar disorder.
Another problem associated with lithium is the fact the long-term lithium treatment has been associated with decreased thyroid functioning in patients with bipolar disorder. Preliminary evidence also suggest that hypothyroidism may actually lead to rapid cycling Bauer et al. Pregnant women experience another problem associated with the. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with birth defects, particularly Ebstein's anomaly. Based on current data, the risk of a child with Ebstein's anomaly being born to a mother who took lithium during her first trimester of pregnancy is approximately 1 in 8,, or 2.
There are other effective treatments for bipolar disorder that are used in cases where he patients cannot tolerate lithium or have been unresponsive to it in the past. The American Psychiatric Association's guidelines suggest the next line of treatment to be Anticonvulsant drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine.
These drugs are useful a antimanic agents, especially in those patients with mixed states. Both of these medications can be used in combination with lithium or in combination with each other.
Valproate is especially helpful for patients who are lithium noncompliant, experience rapid cycling, or have comorbid alcohol or drug abuse.
In between those periods, they usually feel normal. You can think of the highs and the lows as two "poles" of mood, which is why it's called "bipolar" disorder. The word "manic" describes the times when someone with bipolar disorder feels overly excited and confident.
These feelings can also involve irritability and impulsive or reckless decision-making. About half of people during mania can also have delusions believing things that aren't true and that they can't be talked out of or hallucinations seeing or hearing things that aren't there. The word "depressive" describes the times when the person feels very sad or depressed. Those symptoms are the same as those described in major depressive disorder or "clinical depression ," a condition in which someone never has manic or hypomanic episodes.
Most people with bipolar disorder spend more time with depressive symptoms than manic or hypomanic symptoms. In bipolar disorder, the dramatic episodes of high and low moods do not follow a set pattern. Someone may feel the same mood state depressed or manic several times before switching to the opposite mood. These episodes can happen over a period of weeks, months, and sometimes even years. How severe it gets differs from person to person and can also change over time, becoming more or less severe.
When someone develops bipolar disorder, it usually starts when they're in late adolescence or young adulthood. Rarely, it can happen earlier in childhood. Bipolar disorder can run in families. Men and women are equally likely to get it.
Women are somewhat more likely than men to go through "rapid cycling," which is having four or more distinct mood episodes within a year. Women also tend to spend more time depressed than men with bipolar disorder. But genes are not the whole story.
Studies of identical twins, who share all the same genes, indicate that both genes and other factors play a role in bipolar disorder. If bipolar disorder were caused entirely by genes, then the identical twin of someone with the illness would always develop the illness, and research has shown that this is not the case. But if one twin has bipolar disorder, the other twin is more likely to develop the illness than is another sibling.
In addition, findings from gene research suggest that bipolar disorder, like other mental illnesses, does not occur because of a single gene. Finding these genes, each of which contributes only a small amount toward the vulnerability to bipolar disorder, has been extremely difficult. But scientists expect that the advanced research tools now being used will lead to these discoveries and to new and better treatments for bipolar disorder. Brain-imaging studies are helping scientists learn what goes wrong in the brain to produce bipolar disorder and other mental illnesses.
New brain-imaging techniques allow researchers to take pictures of the living brain at work, to examine its structure and activity, without the need for surgery or other invasive procedures. There is evidence from imaging studies that the brains of people with bipolar disorder may differ from the brains of healthy individuals. As the differences are more clearly identified and defined through research, scientists will gain a better understanding of the underlying causes of the illness, and eventually may be able to predict which types of treatment will work most effectively.
Both children and adolescents can develop bipolar disorder. It is more likely to affect the children of parents who have the illness. Unlike many adults with bipolar disorder, whose episodes tend to be more clearly defined, children and young adolescents with the illness often experience very fast mood swings between depression and mania many times within a day.
Children with mania are more likely to be irritable and prone to destructive tantrums than to be overly happy and elated. Mixed symptoms also are common in youths with bipolar disorder. Older adolescents who develop the illness may have more classic, adult-type episodes and symptoms.
Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents can be hard to tell apart from other problems that may occur in these age groups. For example, while irritability and aggressiveness can indicate bipolar disorder, they also can be symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or other types of mental disorders more common among adults such as major depression or schizophrenia.
Drug abuse also may lead to such symptoms.
This paper will discuss bipolar disorder as well as give a short history of the mental illness, the subcategories and the symptoms, as well as causes and treatments. Bipolar disorder was discovered during the time of the ancient Greeks.
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Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally and usually starts between the ages of years old. In this paper, I will explain the different types of bipolar disorder and some of the symptoms of each, the lifestyle of the affected person, interventions and restraining forces. This lifelong condition has recurring episodes of manic and depression that lasts from days to months. For more in-depth information about bipolar disorder, request a copy of our free book here (available in Kindle, PDF or hard copy). Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person’s mood, energy, and ability to function.
Paper Masters writes on all these elements of bipolar disorder when you order a custom research paper. It is a mood disorder involving degrees of mania as well as depression. It was previously known as Manic-Depression, but the title was misleading, as many people believed it was a form of depression. Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depressive illness, is characterized by episodes of mania and major depression. The person with bipolar disorder will have tremendous highs, known as mania, and incredible lows, known as depression, as well as mixed highs and lows, and everything in between. Essays Related to Bipolar. /5(10).