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How to combine multiple research methods: Practical Triangulation

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Similarly, you can adapt your interview approach as you go, feeding back what you learn into the questions you ask. My favourite example of this would be using a quantitative method with a large sample size, such as a survey, to validate findings from earlier research using a relatively small sample size.

Look for where preconceptions might exist, in yourself and your colleagues, and work out how you might be able to minimise their impact. And make sure you state a summary of this in your findings, along with any bias that you feel may have had an effect on the research. Visiting the same people at multiple times throughout the research can give good results.

For example, you might invite interviewees back for a focus group, allowing you to compare and contrast their views with other similar participants. This longer engagement with these individuals allows you to see how their goals, attitudes and behaviors change over time. Triangulation is a very useful means of capturing more detail, but also of minimizing the effects of bias and ensuring a balanced research study, no matter how big or small that study may be.

Patrick will be running a full day workshop on design research methods for UX practitioners at UX Australia — a 3-day user experience design conference, with inspiring and practical presentations , covering a range of topics about how to design great experiences for people. It will be held on August , in Canberra Australia. Top image by watchsmart. Laura Carlson lauracarlson 's status on Monday, Aug As a customer experience researcher, I like online, task-based research for a variety of reasons, most importantly the insights I gain from the users are rich, articulate, honest, and sometimes very surprising.

What kind of tools do you use for your online, task-based research? Enjoyable read and nice meeting at http: Suggest researchers also need a point to reassess a research plan, if you feel that patterns are already pointing consistently one way.

Is it time to reassess? Are the insights making sense? Is it time to re-direct the questions? Is the business flexible enough to cope with a change to the research plan? Posterous as an online cultural probe user research diary USiT. Selecting methods [part 1] Urban Phosphorus Ballet. Yes or no, does Johnny love you? Most of my own research projects of late, have included: Analytics Stakeholder interviews Interviews face-to-face or phone as needs be Cultural probe aka diary study Focus groups or workshops Secondary research including an examination of market research data Quantitative survey to help validate findings with a much larger sample size Usability testing of existing product or early concepts Lots of different views, lots of data!

Triangulation to minimize bias Specifically, the problem with relying on just one method is to do with bias. Measurement bias — Measurement bias is caused by the way in which you collect data. Probably the most common form of this is the effect of the setting in which you conduct your research, for example, peer pressure on focus group participants.

Triangulation allows you to combine individual and group research methods to help reduce this bias. Again, a triangulated approach means you can combine self-reported and observational research methods to help balance out the problem.

Some research methods make it easier to cover certain parts of the population, for example using phone interviews for interstate participants can be a good substitute for the face-to-face interviews you do with local participants.

Similarly online surveys or cultural probes might make it easier for you to include geographically distant participants. Triangulation combines the different strengths of these methods to ensure you getting sufficient coverage. Procedural bias — Procedural bias occurs when participants are put under some kind of pressure to provide information. Similarly, an online exit survey might make the participant rush their answers to finish the survey quickly.

Triangulation allows us to combine short engagements with longer engagements where participants have more time to give considered responses. Tips for triangulation Mix it up Combine different techniques that balance each other out: Standards of Evidence in Qualitative Research: An Incitement to Discourse.

Educational Researcher, 36 1 , Mixed methods in ethnographic research: Qualitative Inquiry, 16 10 , She teaches qualitative research methods, and has written on qualitative interviewing. View all posts by qualpage. You are commenting using your WordPress.

You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Denzin argued strongly for interactionist research that used multiple approaches, commenting that multiple methods should be used in every investigation, since no method is ever free of rival causal factors and thus leads to completely sound causal propositions , can ever completely satisfy the demands of interaction theory, or can ever completely reveal all the relevant features of empirical reality necessary for testing or developing a theory p.

Data triangulation of 1 time, 2 space, and 3 person, with person analysis of multiple levels: Kathy Roulston References Campbell, D. Educational Researcher, 17 2 , The quality of qualitative research. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here

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Some see triangulation as a method for corroborating findings and as a test for validity. This, however, is controversial. This assumes that a weakness in one method will be compensated for by another method, and that it is always possible to make sense between different accounts. This is unlikely.

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Triangulation is a powerful technique that facilitates validation of data through cross verification from two or more sources. In particular, it refers to the application and combination of several research methods in the study of the same phenomenon. It can be used in both .

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Triangulation is a technique that facilitates validation of data through cross verification from two or more sources. In particular, it refers to the application and combination of several research methods in the study of the same phenomenon. Triangulation in Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Can Really Be Mixed 1. Triangulation In social science triangulation is defined as the mixing of data or methods so that.

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Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, ). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Approaches (on this site) refer to an integrated package of options (methods or processes). For example, 'Randomized Controlled Trials' (RCTs) use a combination of the options random sampling, control group and standardised indicators and measures. There are several types of bias encountered in research, and triangulation can help with most.