The voluntary termination of one's own life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician. Physician-assisted suicide is the practice of providing a competent patient with a prescription for medication for the patient to use with the primary intention of ending his or her own life. Physician-assisted suicide has its proponents and its opponents. Among the opponents are some physicians who believe it violates the fundamental tenet of medicine and believe that doctors should not assist in suicides because to do so is incompatible with the doctor's role as a healer.
Physician-assisted suicide is often abbreviated PAS. It is called doctor-assisted suicide in the UK. What is Crohn's Disease? Warning Signs of Type 2 Diabetes. Easing Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain. Know Your Migraine Triggers. The group with the highest suicide rate is white men over age Other high-risk groups include the elderly, the sick, and the mentally ill. There is a tendency of suicides to occur in families, but there is no evidence of a genetically determined suicidal behavior pattern.
There are also seasonal fluctuations in suicide rates, with the highest number occurring in the spring. It includes as essential components of suicide prevention the following measures: Depression screening should be a routine assessment for every clinician.
Research is essential in developing, testing, and implementing treatment approaches to patients at risk for suicide, as well as developing prevention strategies that have been shown to be effective or appear likely to be effective. Suicide committed with the aid of another person, sometimes a physician. An individual who assists a suicide victim in accomplishing that goal may or may not be held responsible for the death, depending on local laws.
The participation of health professionals, especially physicians, in assisted suicide is controversial. See also euthanasia, suicide. Physician-assisted suicide , see there. A form of self-inflicted death in which a person voluntarily brings about his or her own death with the help of another, usually a physician, relative, or friend. State of Washington consensual homicide contract suicide death Death by Doctor death tourist Dignitas Clinic. References in periodicals archive?
Learning from the Dutch and Canadian experience, the AMA believes that doctors who participate in Euthanasia or Physician Assisted Suicide are more likely to require the industrial, professional, medico-legal, and pastoral support of organisations like the AMA, Dr Gannon said. In February , Oregon released a report on their numbers. During , there were people in the state who were approved and received the lethal drugs to end their own life. Of that , terminally ill patients ultimately made the decision to ingest drugs, resulting in their death.
An increasing trend in deaths caused from ingesting lethal doses of medications prescribed by physicians was also noted in Washington: Polls conducted by Gallup dating back to positing the question, "When a person has a disease that cannot be cured, do you think doctors should be allowed to end the patient's life by some painless means if the patient and his family request it?
A poll conducted by National Journal and Regence Foundation found that both Oregonians and Washingtonians were more familiar with the terminology "end-of-life care" than the rest of the country and residents of both states are slightly more aware of the terms palliative and hospice care.
This includes eligibility and qualification processes, mandatory state reporting by the medical team, and medical board oversight. These safeguards include proving one's residency and eligibility. The patient must meet with two physicians and they must confirm the diagnoses before one can continue; in some cases, they do include a psychiatric evaluation as well to determine whether or not the patient is making this decision on their own.
The next steps are two oral requests, a waiting period of a minimum of 15 days before making your next request. A written request which must be witnessed by two different people, one of which cannot be a family member, and then another waiting period by your doctor in which they either say you're eligible for the drugs or not "Death with Dignity". Listed below are some major organizations that support medical aid in dying:. Compassion and Choices is a nonprofit organization in support of end of life care and claims to be the biggest nonprofit in the United States to do so.
Created over 30 years ago the group provides patients with legal assistance as well as advice and information about medical aid in dying.
The Death with Dignity National Center is a nonprofit organization that has been in existence since This organization is most notably associated with the original writing and continued advocating of the Oregon Death with Dignity Law that was enacted on October 27, Dignitas helps Swiss nationals and foreigners to die by providing advice and lethal drugs. The legal pre-requisites are that a person must have either a terminal illness, an unendurable incapacitating disability or unbearable and uncontrollable pain.
Dignity in Dying Is a United Kingdom based campaign group for the right to die, supporting members with advice and information relating to palliative care, and other end of life options. The organization frequently campaigns for the right of adults to make choices about their end of life options.
The group was founded in and has since then been one of the bigger organizations to openly support assisted suicide in the UK. Their main goal is for the choice to choose how they die and to have a completely free choice to their end of life options. Exit is a Scottish organization that supports a permissive model of right-to-die legislation  based on published research and recommendations from Glasgow University using an 'exceptions to the rule' against euthanasia format to facilitate transparency and open safeguards.
Philip Nitschke and Dr. Final Exit Network , Inc. Humanists UK is a British charity that promotes humanism. They support the right of those who are suffering incurably to have access to an assisted death  , and they have supported various court cases to this effect. My Death My Decision is a British organisation that believes those who suffer incurably and have a quality of life below which is acceptable to them should have access to an assisted death.
The World Federation of Right to Die Societies was founded in and encompasses 38 right-to-die organizations in 23 different countries. Some doctors  remind that physician-assisted suicide is contrary to the Hippocratic Oath , which is the oath historically taken by physicians.
It states "I will give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked, nor suggest any such counsel". The Declaration of Geneva is a revision of the Hippocratic Oath, first drafted in by the World Medical Association in response to forced euthanasia, eugenics and other medical crimes performed in Nazi Germany. It contains, "I will maintain the utmost respect for human life. The International Code of Medical Ethics , last revised in , includes "A physician shall always bear in mind the obligation to respect human life" in the section "Duties of physicians to patients".
It provides that "physician-assisted suicide, like euthanasia, is unethical and must be condemned by the medical profession. There are many health care professionals, [ who?
This argument is known as the " slippery slope ". In addition, vulnerable populations are more at risk of untimely deaths because, "patients might be subjected to PAS without their genuine consent". The Roman Catholic Church acknowledges the fact that moral decisions regarding a person's life must be made according to one's own conscience and faith.
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church , "God is the creator and author of all life. Pope Francis  is the current dominant figure of the Catholic Church.
He affirms that death is a glorious event and should not be decided for by anyone other than God. Pope Francis insinuates that defending life means defending its sacredness. You shall not kill " As implied by the fifth commandment, the act of assisted suicide contradicts the dignity of human life as well as the respect one has for God.
It uses the story to call earnestly upon the Good Samaritan's actions and his love for his neighbor. In this tradition, the act of assisted suicide negates the respect and love we should have for our neighbors, as it mistakenly places the love God has for his followers in the hands of physicians.
As an alternative to the physician-assisted suicide and in order to alleviate pain, the Catholic Church proposes that terminally ill patients focus on religion and making peace with the Creator while receiving the love and mercy of their families and caregivers.
While preservation of life is one of the greatest values in Judaism , there are rare instances of suicide and assisted suicide appearing in the Bible and Rabbinic literature. The conclusion of the majority of later rabbinic authorities, and accepted normative practice within Judaism, is that suicide and assisted suicide can not be sanctioned even for a terminal patient in intractable pain.
According to a General Resolution, " Unitarian Universalists advocate the right to self-determination in dying, and the release from civil or criminal penalties of those who, under proper safeguards, act to honor the right of terminally ill patients to select the time of their own deaths". Anyone who takes part in euthanasia, including "assisted suicide", is regarded as having violated the commandments of God. The Church states that 'When dying becomes inevitable, death should be looked upon as a blessing and a purposeful part of an eternal existence.
Members should not feel obligated to extend mortal life by means that are unreasonable. It is widely acknowledged that physicians must play some role in the process of assisted suicide and euthanasia as evident in the name "physician-assisted suicide" , often putting them at the forefront of the issue. Decades of opinion research shows that physicians in the US and several European countries are less supportive of legalization of PAS than the general public. Pharmacists were twice as likely as medical GPs to endorse the view that "if a patient has decided to end their own life then doctors should be allowed in law to assist".
Voluntary euthanasia was legalized in Colombia in ,  the Netherlands in , Belgium in , Luxembourg in ,  and Canada in Oregon was the first United States state to legalize assisted suicide, which was achieved through popular vote. The Act was a citizens' initiative passed twice by Oregon voters. An injunction delayed implementation of the Act until it was lifted on October 27, In November , a measure was placed on the general election ballot to repeal the Act.
Assisted suicide is currently illegal throughout Australia with the exception of Victoria where the Voluntary Assisted Dying Act Victoria was passed on 29 November The "Euthanasia Act" legalized euthanasia in Belgium in ,   but it didn't cover assisted suicide. As of November , Belgium had the most liberal assisted suicide laws in the world. In , Belgium became the first country to authorize euthanasia for children, on request, if they have a terminal illness and understand the repercussions of their act.
Suicide was considered a criminal offence in Canada until Physician-assisted suicide has been legal in the Province of Quebec since June 5, After a lengthy delay, the House of Commons passed a Bill C in mid June that allows for doctor-assisted suicide. Between December 10, and June 30, , since the passing of Bill C, over 2, medically assisted deaths were documented in Canada.
Research published by Health Canada illustrates physician preference for physician administered euthanasia, citing concerns of effective administration and prevention of the potential complications of self-administration by patients.
An article in People's Daily reported that "Nine people from Xi'an City in China made news when they 'jointly wrote to local media asking for euthanasia, or mercy killings'. In May the Colombian Constitutional Court allowed for the euthanasia of sick patients who requested to end their lives, by passing Article of the Penal Code. When one of its members brought a lawsuit to the Colombian Supreme Court against it, the court issued a 6 to 3 decision that "spelled out the rights of a terminally ill person to engage in voluntary euthanasia.
In February , the Supreme Court gave the government 30 days to create a comprehensive set of guidelines for doctors, to assist them in avoiding breaches of the law, as although technically legal, many physicians face lawsuits where they must prove that all legal requirements were met prior to the procedure.
This fear of legal action has led many doctors to refuse to perform the procedure, in spite of its legality. In Denmark, passive euthanasia, or the refusal to accept treatment is not illegal. But voluntary euthanasia when a patient actively tries to kill themselves is illegal.
The controversy over legalising euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide is not as big as in the United States because of the country's "well developed hospice care programme". After a car crash that left him "unable to 'walk, see, speak, smell or taste'", he used the movement of his right thumb to write a book, I Ask the Right to Die Je vous demande le droit de mourir in which he voiced his desire to "die legally".
Though his mother was arrested for aiding in her son's death and later acquitted, the case did jump-start new legislation which states that when medicine serves "no other purpose than the artificial support of life" it can be "suspended or not undertaken". In President Francois Hollande said that France should hold a national debate on the issue, and stated his intention to introduce a bill to parliament before the end of the year. Opinion polls in France show that the majority of the public are in favor of an assisted suicide law,  however France's national ethics committee has advised against any change in the law.
Killing somebody in accordance with their demands is always illegal under the German criminal code Paragraph , "Killing at the request of the victim; mercy killing".
Assisting with suicide by, for example, providing poison or a weapon, is generally legal. Since suicide itself is legal, assistance or encouragement is not punishable by the usual legal mechanisms dealing with complicity and incitement German criminal law follows the idea of "accessories of complicity" which states that "the motives of a person who incites another person to commit suicide, or who assists in its commission, are irrelevant".
There can however be legal repercussions under certain conditions for a number of reasons. Aside from laws regulating firearms, the trade and handling of controlled substances and the like e. Action out of free will is not ruled out by the decision to end one's life in itself; it can be assumed as long as a suicidal person "decides on his own fate up to the end [ Free will cannot be assumed, however, if someone is manipulated or deceived.
A classic textbook example for this, in German law, is the so-called Sirius case on which the Federal Court of Justice ruled in The accused had convinced an acquaintance that she would be reincarnated into a better life if she killed herself. She unsuccessfully attempted suicide, leading the accused to be charged with, and eventually convicted of attempted murder. Apart from manipulation, the criminal code states three conditions under which a person is not acting under his own free will:.
Under these circumstances, even if colloquially speaking one might say a person is acting of his own free will, a conviction of murder is possible. Under this rule, the party assisting in the suicide can be convicted if, in finding the suicidal person in a state of unconsciousness , he does not do everything in his power to revive him.
This reasoning is disputed by legal scholars, citing that a life-threatening condition that is part, so to speak, of a suicide underway, is not an emergency. For those who would rely on that defence, the Federal Court of Justice has considered it an emergency in the past. German law puts certain people in the position of a warrantor Garantenstellung for the well-being of another, e.
Assisted suicide: Providing the means (drugs or other agents) by which a person can take his or her own life. Physician-assisted suicide: A doctor providing the lethal drugs with which a dying person may end their life. Physician aid-in-dying: Euphemistic term for medical doctor assisting the suicide of .
A Washington State Judge refused to allow the biased term “assisted suicide” on Washington State’s Death with Dignity Act ballot measure, finding that the term “suicide” is “loaded” and adding, “it’s important that that term not be used.”.
Since the hastened death law became operative in , the Oregon Department of Human Services (DHS) has always used the term ‘physician-assisted suicide’ in its annual reports on when and how the law is used. All medical and academic journals used the same term. Looking for online definition of assisted suicide in the Medical Dictionary? assisted suicide explanation free. What is assisted suicide? Meaning of assisted suicide medical term.
Assisted suicide definition is - suicide committed by someone with assistance from another person; especially: physician-assisted suicide. How to use assisted suicide in a sentence. suicide committed by someone with assistance from another person; especially: physician-assisted suicide. Euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is when action is taken to end the life of a person who is experiencing long-term illness. Euthanasia is against the law in many countries, and in the U.S., the law varies from state to state. This article examines the arguments .