Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection Methods - The link below provides specific example of instruments and methods used to collect quantitative data.
This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Quantitative Data This module describes quantitative data and examines common methods of data collection in quantitative studies. Define quantitative data and its characteristics. Explain the difference between discrete and continuous data. List examples of quantitative data. Describe common methods of quantitative data collection. Common examples of quantitative data collection strategies may include: Quantitative data analysis for social scientists rev.
Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Measurement scales and statistics: Planners cannot draw up plans and designs without a basis. Entrepreneurs could not possibly come up with a business idea — much less a viable business plan — out of nothing at all.
All that decision-makers are left with is their intuition and gut feeling , but even gut feeling and instinct have some basis on facts. Decision-making processes become smoother, and decisions are definitely better, if there is data driving them. In business, one of the most important decisions that must be made is on resource allocation and usage. If they collect the relevant data, they will be able to make informed decisions on how to use business resources efficiently. Just as having data will improve decision-making and the quality of the decisions, it will also improve the quality of the results or output expected from any endeavor or activity.
For example, a manufacturer will be able to produce high quality products after designing them using reliable data gathered. Consumers will also find the claims of the company about the product to be more reliable because they know it has been developed after conducting significant amount of research.
Through collecting data, monitoring and tracking progress will also be facilitated. This gives a lot of room for flexibility, so response can be made accordingly and promptly. Adjustments can be made and improvements effected. Now we move to the next question, and that is on the manner of collecting data. Why is there a need to be particular about how data is collected?
Why does it have to be systematic, and not just done on the fly, using whatever makes the data gatherer comfortable? Why do you have to pick certain methodologies of data collection when you can simply be random with it? You may notice some methods falling under both categories, which means that they can be used in gathering both types of data. Exploratory in nature, these methods are mainly concerned at gaining insights and understanding on underlying reasons and motivations, so they tend to dig deeper.
Since they cannot be quantified, measurability becomes an issue. This lack of measurability leads to the preference for methods or tools that are largely unstructured or, in some cases, maybe structured but only to a very small, limited extent. Generally, qualitative methods are time-consuming and expensive to conduct, and so researchers try to lower the costs incurred by decreasing the sample size or number of respondents. This is considered to be the most common data collection instrument for qualitative research, primarily because of its personal approach.
The interviewer will collect data directly from the subject the interviewee , on a one-on-one and face-to-face interaction. This is ideal for when data to be obtained must be highly personalized.
The interview may be informal and unstructured — conversational, even — as if taking place between two casual to close friends. The questions asked are mostly unplanned and spontaneous, with the interviewer letting the flow of the interview dictate the next questions to be asked.
However, if the interviewer still wants the data to be standardized to a certain extent for easier analysis, he could conduct a semi-structured interview where he asks the same series of open-ended questions to all the respondents. But if they let the subject choose her answer from a set of options, what just took place is a closed, structured and fixed-response interview.
Focus groups method is basically an interview method, but done in a group discussion setting. When the object of the data is behaviors and attitudes, particularly in social situations, and resources for one-on-one interviews are limited, using the focus group approach is highly recommended. Ideally, the focus group should have at least 3 people and a moderator to around 10 to 13 people maximum, plus a moderator.
Depending on the data being sought, the members of the group should have something in common. For example, a researcher conducting a study on the recovery of married mothers from alcoholism will choose women who are 1 married, 2 have kids, and 3 recovering alcoholics. Other parameters such as the age, employment status, and income bracketdo not have to be similar across the members of the focus group. The topic that data will be collected about will be presented to the group, and the moderator will open the floor for a debate.
This method involves the use of previously existing and reliable documents and other sources of information as a source of data to be used in a new research or investigation. This is likened to how the data collector will go to a library and go over the books and other references for information relevant to what he is currently researching on. In this method, the researcher takes a participatory stance, immersing himself in the setting where his respondents are, and generally taking a look at everything, while taking down notes.
Aside from note-taking, other documentation methods may be used, such as video and audio recording, photography, and the use of tangible items such as artifacts, mementoes, and other tools.
This is a research or data collection method that is performed repeatedly, on the same data sources, over an extended period of time. It is an observational research method that could even cover a span of years and, in some cases, even decades.
This synthesis is the aim of the final stage of qualitative research. There are a number of ways in which researchers can synthesize and present their findings, but any conclusions drawn by the researchers must be supported by direct quotations from the participants. The work of Latif and others 12 gives an example of how qualitative research findings might be presented. As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report.
The final presentation of the research will usually be in the form of a report or a paper and so should follow accepted academic guidelines. In particular, the article should begin with an introduction, including a literature review and rationale for the research. There should be a section on the chosen methodology and a brief discussion about why qualitative methodology was most appropriate for the study question and why one particular methodology e.
The method itself should then be described, including ethics approval, choice of participants, mode of recruitment, and method of data collection e. The findings should be written as if a story is being told; as such, it is not necessary to have a lengthy discussion section at the end.
As stated earlier, it is not the intention of qualitative research to allow the findings to be generalized, and therefore this is not, in itself, a limitation. Planning out the way that findings are to be presented is helpful. It is useful to insert the headings of the sections the themes and then make a note of the codes that exemplify the thoughts and feelings of your participants.
It is generally advisable to put in the quotations that you want to use for each theme, using each quotation only once. After all this is done, the telling of the story can begin as you give your voice to the experiences of the participants, writing around their quotations.
Finally, as appropriate, it is possible to include examples from literature or policy documents that add support for your findings. It can be used in pharmacy practice research to explore how patients feel about their health and their treatment.
An understanding of these issues can help pharmacists and other health care professionals to tailor health care to match the individual needs of patients and to develop a concordant relationship. Doing qualitative research is not easy and may require a complete rethink of how research is conducted, particularly for researchers who are more familiar with quantitative approaches. There are many ways of conducting qualitative research, and this paper has covered some of the practical issues regarding data collection, analysis, and management.
The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years. As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked:. The planned 2-year series is intended to appeal to relatively inexperienced researchers, with the goal of building research capacity among practising pharmacists.
The articles, presenting simple but rigorous guidance to encourage and support novice researchers, are being solicited from authors with appropriate expertise. Can J Hosp Pharm. Ethical issues in pharmacy practice research: Designing pharmacy practice research trials.
An introduction to developing surveys for pharmacy practice research. An introduction to the fundamentals of cohort and case—control studies. Austin Z, Sutton J. C an J Hosp Pharm. An introduction to the fundamentals of randomized controlled trials in pharmacy research. What do you need to know to get started? National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Copyright Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists. In submitting their manuscripts, the authors transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership to CSHP.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Interpretation of Data Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers.
Transcribing and Checking For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded. Coding Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is time to begin coding. Theming Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way. Planning and Writing the Report As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report.
Excerpt from a sample transcript The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years. As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked: What was treatment like 30 years ago?
Umm—well it was pretty much they could do what they wanted with you because I was put into the er, the er kind of system er, I was just on. He had a book this thick [gestures] and on each page it was like three questions and he went through.
Previous articles in this series: Austin ZA, Sutton J. Hammersley M, Atkinson P. Taylor and Francis; What is grounded theory?
collection—quantitative and qualitative—operates within a cultural context and is affected to some extent by the perceptions and beliefs of investigators and data collectors.
Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. Data collection methods for impact evaluation vary along a continuum.
This is a research or data collection method that is performed repeatedly, on the same data sources, over an extended period of time. It is an observational research method that could even cover a span of years and, in some cases, even decades. Quantitative data collection may include ANY method that will result in numerical values. Common examples of quantitative data collection strategies may include: Data Colection – Quantitative Research – This resources provides links to information relating to a variety of ways to collect quantitative data.
Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in data collection, online surveys, paper surveys, quantifiable research, and quantifiable data. quantifiable research, and quantifiable data. Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in data collection, online surveys, paper surveys, quantifiable research, . Doing qualitative research is not easy and may require a complete rethink of how research is conducted, particularly for researchers who are more familiar with quantitative approaches. There are many ways of conducting qualitative research, and this paper has covered some of the practical issues regarding data collection, .